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Chapter 14: Musculoskeletal System. Chapter 14 Abbreviations  D.O.  NSAID  AKA  BKA  CR  CRIF  disl  Fx  ORIF  Doctor of Osteopathy  nonsteroidal.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14: Musculoskeletal System. Chapter 14 Abbreviations  D.O.  NSAID  AKA  BKA  CR  CRIF  disl  Fx  ORIF  Doctor of Osteopathy  nonsteroidal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14: Musculoskeletal System

2 Chapter 14 Abbreviations  D.O.  NSAID  AKA  BKA  CR  CRIF  disl  Fx  ORIF  Doctor of Osteopathy  nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug  above-knee amputation  below-knee amputation  closed reduction  closed reduction internal fixation (fracture treatment)  dislocation  fracture  open reduction internal fixation (surgical fracture treatment)

3 Chapter 14 Abbreviations  MD  OA  RA  C1, C2  L1, L2  LS  T1, T2  EMG  ROM  muscular dystrophy  osteoarthritis  rheumatoid arthritis  cervical vertebrae #1, 2, etc.  lumbar vertebrae #1, 2, etc.  lumbosacral  thoracic vertebrae #1, 2, etc.  electromyogram  range of motion

4 Chapter 14 Abbreviations  Ortho  OT  PT  Ht  Wt  orthopedics  occupation therapy  physical therapy  height  weight

5 Musculoskeletal System  Function  Muscular System – movement, posture, joint stability, and heat production  Skeletal System – provide a framework for the body, protect the soft body parts (i.e. brain), store calcium, and produce blood cells  They work together  protect, support, and move the body

6 Musculoskeletal System  Bone Structure  periosteum  outermost layer of the bone, made up of fibrous tissue  compact bone  dense, hard layers of bone tissue that lie underneath the periostem  cancellous (spongy) bone  contains little spaces like a sponge and is encased in the layers of compact bone  endosteum  membranous lining of the hollow cavity of the bone

7 Musculoskeletal System  diaphysis  shaft of the long bones  epiphysis  end of each long bone  bone marrow  material found in the cavities of bones  red marrow: thick, bloodlike material found in flat bones and the ends of long bones; location of blood cell formation  yellow marrow: soft, fatty material found in the medullary cavity of long bones

8 Musculoskeletal System Bone Structure

9 Musculoskeletal System  Skeletal Bones  maxilla  upper jawbone  mandible  lower jawbone  vertebral column  made up of bones called vertebrae (pl.) or vertebra (sing.) through which the spinal cord runs.  protects the spinal cord, supports the head, and provides points of attachment for ribs and muscles

10 Musculoskeletal System  cervical vertebrae (C1-C7)  first set of 7 bones, forming the neck  thoracic vertebrae (T1-T12)  second set of 12 vertebrae. They articulate with the 12 pairs of ribs to form the outward curve of the spine  lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5)  third set of five large vertebrae, which forms the inward curve of the spine  sacrum  next five vertebrae, which fuse together to form a triangular bone positioned between the two hip bones  coccyx  four vertebrae fused together to form the tailbone  lamina (pl. laminae)  part of the vertebral arch

11 Musculoskeletal System  clavicle  collarbone  scapula  should blade  acromion process: extension of the scapula, which forms the high point of the shoulder  sternum  breastbone  xiphoid process: lower potion of the sternum  humerus  upper arm bones

12 Musculoskeletal System  ulna and radius  lower arm bones  olecranon process  projection at the upper end of the ulna that forms the bony point of the elbow  carpal bones  wrist bones  metacarpal bones  hand bones  phalanges (sing. phalanx)  finger and toe bones

13 Musculoskeletal System  pelvic bone, hip bone  made up of three bones fused together  ischium: lower, rear portion of which one sits  ilium: upper, wing-shaped part of each side  pubis: anterior portion of the pelvic bone  acetabulum  large socket in the pelvic bone for the head of the femur  femur  upper leg bone  tibia and fibula  lower leg bones

14 Musculoskeletal System  patella(pl. patellae)  kneecap  tarsal bones  ankle bones  calcaneus  heel bone  metatarsal  foot bones

15 Bones of the Body

16 Musculoskeletal System  Joints (articulations)  Hold bones together  articular cartilage  smooth layer of firm, fibrous tissue covering the contacting surface of joints  meniscus  crescent-shaped cartilage found in the knee  intervertebral disk  cartilaginous pad found between the vertebrae in the spine  pubic symphysis  cartilaginous joint at which two pubic bones come together

17 Musculoskeletal System  synovia  fluid secreted by the synovial membrane and found in joint cavities  bursa (pl. bursae)  fluid-filled sac that allows for easy movement of one part of a joint over another  ligament  flexible, tough band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches one bone to another at a joint  tendon  band of fibrous connective tissue that attches muscle to bone  aponeurosis  strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach muscles to bones

18 Body Joints

19 Musculoskeletal System  Muscles  skeletal muscles (striated muscles)  attached to bones by tendons and make body movement possible. Skeletal muscles produce action by pulling and by working in pairs. Voluntary muscles because we have control over them  smooth muscles (unstriated muscles)  located in internal organs such as the walls of blood vessels and the digestive tract. Involuntary muscles b/c they respond to impulses from the autonomic nerves and are not controlled voluntary

20 Musculoskeletal System  cardiac muscle (myocardium)  forms most of the wall of the heart. Its involuntary contraction produces the heartbeat

21 Muscles of the Body

22 Types of Muscle

23 Types of Body Movement TermDefinition  abduction  adduction  inversion  eversion  extension  flexion  pronation  supination  rotation  moving away from the midline  moving toward the midline  turning inward  turning outward  mvmnt. in which a limb is placed in a straight position  mvmnt. in which a limb is bent  mvmnt. that turns the palm down  mvmnt. that turns the palm up  turning around its own axis

24 Word Parts for the Musculoskeletal System Combining FormDefinition  carp/o  clavic/o, clavicul/o  cost/o  crani/o  femor/o  fibul/o  humer/o  ili/o  ischi/o  lumbo  carpals (wrist bones)  clavicle (collarbone)  rib  cranium (skull)  femur (upper leg bone) [note: u  o]  fibula (lower leg bone) (also perone/o)  humerus (upper arm bone)  ilium  ischium  loin, lumbar region of the spine

25 Word Parts for the Musculoskeletal System Combining FormDefinition  mandibul/o  maxill/o  patell/o  pelv/i, pelv/o  phalang/o  pub/o  rachi/o  radi/o  sacr/o  scapul/o  mandible (lower jawbone)  maxilla (upper jawbone)  patella (kneecap)  pelvis, pelvic bone  phalanges  pubis  spine, vertebral column  radius (lower arm bone)  sacrum  scapula (shoulder blade)

26 Word Parts for the Musculoskeletal System Combining FormDefinition  spondyl/o, vertebr/o  stern/o  tars/o  tibi/o  uln/o  vertebra  sternum (breastbone)  tarsals (ankle bones)  tibia (lower leg bone)  ulna (lower arm bone)

27 Word Parts for Joints Combining FormDefinition  aponeur/o  arthr/o  burs/o  chondr/o  disk/o  menisc/o  synovi/o  ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o  aponeurosis  joint  bursa (cavity)  cartilage  intervertebral disk  meniscus (crescent)  synovia, synovial membrane  tendon

28 Word Parts commonly used with Musculoskeletal Combining FormDefinition  ankyl/o  kinesi/o  lamin/o  lord/o  myel/o  my/o, myos/o  oste/o  crooked, stiff, bent  movement, motion  lamina (thin, flat plate or layer)  bent forward (increased concavity)  bone marrow  muscle  bone

29 Word Parts for the Musculoskeletal System PrefixDefinition  inter-  supra-  sym-, syn-  between  above  together, joined SuffixDefinition  -asthenia  -clasia, -clasis  -desis  -physis  -schisis  weakness  break  surgical fixation, fusion  growth  split, fissure

30 Med Terms (from word parts) [Disease and Disorders] TermDefinition  ankylosis  arthritis  bursitis  chondromalacia  cranioschisis  diskitis  fibromyalgia  kyphosis  lordosis  maxillitis

31 Med Terms (from word parts) [Disease and Disorders] TermDefinition  meniscitis  myasthenia  osteitis  osteoarthritis  osteochondritis  osteofibriboma  osteomalacia  osteomyelitis  osteopenia  osteosarcoma

32 Med Terms (from word parts) [Disease and Disorders] TermDefinition  polymyositis  rachischisis  rhabdomyolysis  scoliosis  spondylarthritis  spondylosis  synoviosarcoma  tendinitis  tenosynovitis

33 Med Terms ( not from word parts ) [Disease and Disorders] TermDefinition  bunion  carpal tunnel syndrome  exostosis  abnormal prominence of the joint at the base of the great toe.  Common problem, often hereditary or caused by poorly fitted shoes (hallux valgus)  a common nerve entrapment disorder of the wrist caused by compression of the median nerve.  Symptoms include pain and paresthesia in portions of the hand and figures  abnormal benign growth on the surface of a bone (spur)

34 Med Terms ( not from word parts ) [Disease and Disorders] TermDefinition  fracture  gout  herniated disk  broken bone  disease in which an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood causes sodium urate crystals to be deposited in the joints, especially the great toe, producing arthritis  rupture of the intervertebral disk cartilage, which allows the contents to protrude through it, putting pressure on the spinal nerve roots  also called slipped disk, ruptured disk, herniated intervertebral disk, or herniated nucleus pulposus

35 Med Terms ( not from word parts ) [Disease and Disorders] TermDefinition  Lyme disease  an infection caused by a bacteria carried by deer ticks and transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick.  Symptoms, caused by the body’s immune response to the bacteria, vary and may include a rash at the site of the tick bite and flulike symptoms such as fever, headache, joint pain, and fatigue  First reported in Lyme, Conn., in The primary treatment is antibiotics. Left untreated, Lyme disease can mimic several other musculoskeletal diseases

36 Med Terms ( not from word parts ) [Disease and Disorders] TermDefinition  osteoporosis  abnormal loss of bone density that may lead to an increase in fractures of the ribs, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, hips, and wrists after slight trauma (occurs predominantly in postmenopausal women)

37 Med Terms (from word parts) [Surgical Terms] TermsDefinition  aponeurorrhaphy  arthrocentesis  arthroclasia  arthrodesis  arthroplasty  bursectomy  carpectomy  chondrectomy  chondroplasty  costectomy

38 Med Terms (from word parts) [Surgical Terms] TermsDefinition  cranioplasty  craniotomy  diskectomy  laminectomy  maxillectomy  meniscectomy  myorrhphy  ostectomy  osteoclasis  patellectomy

39 Med Terms (from word parts) [Surgical Terms] TermsDefinition  phalangectomy  rachiotomy  spondylosyndesis  synovectomy  tarsectomy  tenomyoplasty  tenorrhaphy  vertebroplasty

40 Med Terms (from word parts) [Diagnostic Terms] TermsDefinition DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING  arthrography ENDOSCOPY  arthroscopy OTHER  electromyogram

41 Med Terms (from word parts) [Complementary Terms] TermsDefinition  arthralgia  atrophy  bradykinesia  carpal  clavicular  cranial  dyskinesia  dystrophy  femoral  humeral

42 Med Terms (from word parts) [Complementary Terms] TermsDefinition  hyperkinesia  hypertrophy  iliofemoral  intercostal  intervertebral  intracranial  ischiofibular  ischiopubic  lumbar  lumbocostal

43 Med Terms (from word parts) [Complementary Terms] TermsDefinition  lumbosacral  osteoblast  osteocyte  osteonecrosis  pelvic  pelvisacral  pubic  pubofemoral  radial  sacral

44 Med Terms (from word parts) [Complementary Terms] TermsDefinition  sternoclavicular  sternoid  subcostal  submandibular  submaxillary  subscapular  substernal  suprapatellar  suprascapular

45 Med Terms (from word parts) [Complementary Terms] TermsDefinition  symphysis  tibial  ulnoradial  vertebrocostal

46 Med Terms ( not from word parts ) [Complementary Terms] TermsDefinition  podiatrist  chiropractic  chiropractor  crepitus  specialist in treating and diagnosing diseases and disorders of the foot, including medical and surgical treatment  system of treatment that consists of manipulation of the vertebral column  specialist in chiropractic  the crackling sound heard when two bones rub against each other or grating caused by the rubbing together of dry surfaces of a joint (crepitation)

47 Med Terms ( not from word parts ) [Complementary Terms] TermDefinition  orthopedics  orthopedist  orthotics  orthotist  branch of medicine dealing with the study and treatment of diseases and abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system  physician who specializes in orthopedics  making and fitting of orthopedic appliances, such as arch supports, used to support, align, prevent or correct deformities  a person who specializes in orthotics

48 Med Terms ( not from word parts ) [Complementary Terms] TermDefinition  osteoclast  osteopath  osteopathy  type of bone cell involved in absorption and removal of bone minerals. It works in balance with osteoblasts to maintain healthy bone tissue  physician who specializes in osteopathy  system of medicine that uses the usual forms of diagnosis and treatment but places greater emphasis on the role of the relation between body organs and the musculoskeletal system; manipulation may be used in addition to other treatments

49 Med Terms ( not from word parts ) [Complementary Terms] TermDefinition  prosthesis (pl. prostheses)  an artificial substitute for a missing body part such as a leg, eye, or total hip replacement


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