Presentation on theme: "Dr. Anand Srinivasan for MBBS 2013 on 10/10/2013."— Presentation transcript:
Dr. Anand Srinivasan for MBBS 2013 on 10/10/2013
Classify and describe the characteristic features of fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial joints. Describe the parts and clinical importance of structures forming synovial joint.
Site where 2 or more bone come together, whether or not movements occurs between them.
FUNCTIONAL Synarthoses = immovable joint Amphiarthroses = slightly movable Diarthroses = freely movable Based on the tissues that lie between them : Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial
Articulating surfaces joined by fibrous tissue No joint cavity Very little / no movement TYPES : Suture Syndesmosis Gomphosis
Inferior tibio-fibular joint Interosseous membrane of radio ulnar joint
Peg in socket type
Joint between Epiphysis and Diaphysis 1 st rib and sternum
Intervertebral disc Pubic symphysis
Freely movable. Presence of joint cavity (synovial cavity) Articulating surface – lined by hyaline cartilage Presence of synovial membrane – secreting synovial fluid – reduces friction Synovial membrane protected by “Capsule”
ARTICULAR DISC Wedges of fibrocartilage interposed between articular surfaces. FATTY PADS Found between synovial membrane & capsule / bone
Arrangement of articular surfaces & type of movements PLANE / GLIDING JOINTS Articular surface – flat Type of movement – sliding E.g. : Sternoclavicular, Acromioclavicular
HINGE JOINTS E.g. : Elbow, Knee & Ankle joints PIVOT JOINTS E.g. Atlanto-axial, Radio-ulnar
CONDYLOID JOINT : Has 2 convex surfaces which articulate with concave surfaces E.g. Metacarpophalangeal joint ELLIPSOID JOINT : E.g. Wrist joint
SADDLE JOINT Reciprocally concavoconvex E.g.1 st Carpometacarpal joint BALL & SOCKET JOINT E.g. Shoulder joint, Hip joint
JOINT STABILITY Shape, size and arrangement of articular surfaces Ligaments Muscle tone HILTON’S LAW Sensory nerve supplying a joint also supplied the muscles moving the joint and the overlying skin
LIGAMENTS : Bands of connective tissue that connect bones to other bones. TYPES: ▪ Intrinsic or Capsular ▪ Extracapsular ▪ Intracapsular ▪ Fibrous ▪ Elastic TENDONS: Bands of connective tissue that connect muscles to the bones
BURSAE Closed space containing synovial fluid Lined by synovial membrane on the inside and a fibrous membrane on the outside. Found where tendons rub against bones, ligaments or other tendons. Close to joints where skin rubs against underlying structures e.g. Prepatellar bursa Occassionaly may communicate with cavity of synovial joint e.g. suprapatellar bursa
Synovial sheaths tubular bursa surrounding a tendon.