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JOINTS (Arthrology) Flexible connective tissue form joints that hold bones together ,while still permitting some motion A joint, also called articulation.

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Presentation on theme: "JOINTS (Arthrology) Flexible connective tissue form joints that hold bones together ,while still permitting some motion A joint, also called articulation."— Presentation transcript:

1 JOINTS (Arthrology) Flexible connective tissue form joints that hold bones together ,while still permitting some motion A joint, also called articulation or arthosis is a point of contact between two bones, a bone and cartilage or bone and teeth The scientific study of joints is called arthrology. Chaitali prabhudesai

2 Joint Classification The joints are classified in two different ways:
Based on their structure-Structural Classification Based on their function: Functional Classification The structural classification is based on two criteria 1)The presence or absence of a space between articulating bones called synovial cavity 2)The type of connective tissue that binds the bones together Chaitali prabhudesai

3 Joint Classification Structurally joints are classified as following:
Fibrous joints : the bones are held together by fibrous connective tissue that is rich in collagen fibers. No synovial cavity. Cartilaginous joints: the bones are held together by cartilage. No synovial cavity. Synovial joints: the bones forming the joint have a synovial cavity and are united by dense irregular connective tissue. Chaitali prabhudesai

4 Joint Classification Functionally joints are classified as following:
Synarthosis: An immovable joint Amphiarthosis: A slightly movable joint Diarthosis: A freely movable joint. All Diarthosis are synovial joints. They have a variety of shapes and permit several different types of movements Chaitali prabhudesai

5 Fibrous Joints These are joints that lack a synovial cavity and the articulating bones are held very closely together by fibrous connective tissue. They permit little or no movement. They are further classified in three types: Sutures Syndesmoses Gomphoses Chaitali prabhudesai

6 Types of Fibrous Joints
Sutures: thin layer of dense connective issue. Unites bones of the skull. E.g. coronal suture between parietal and frontal bones The irregular interlocking of sutures give them additional strength and decrease the changes of fracture Because a suture is immovable, it is functionally classified as a synarthrosis. Some sutures are replaced by bone in the adult. Such a suture is called synostosis. (or a joint in which there is complete fusion of two separate bones in one bone) Chaitali prabhudesai

7 Types of Fibrous Joints
Chaitali prabhudesai

8 Types of Fibrous Joints
Syndesmoses: there is a greater distance between the bones and more fibrous connective tissue. The tissue is either arranged as a bundle (ligament) or as a sheet (interosseous membrane). Example: distal tibiofibular joint where anterior tibiofibular ligament connects the joint also the interosseous membrane between parallel borders of tibia and fibula Because it permits slight movement, a syndesmosis is classified functionally as an amphiarthrosis. Chaitali prabhudesai

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10 Types of Fibrous Joints
Gomphoses- this is a type of fibrous joint in which a cone-shaped peg fits into a socket. The only example are the articulations of the roots of the teeth with the sockets of the alveolar processes of the maxillae and mandible. The dense fibrous connective tissue is called the periodonatal ligament. This is functionally classified as a synarthrosis. Chaitali prabhudesai

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12 Cartilaginous Joints This also lacks a synovial cavity and permits little or no movement. Bones are connected by a hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage These are further divided into : Synchondroses Symphyses Chaitali prabhudesai

13 Types of Cartilaginous Joints
Synchondroses: here the connecting material is hyaline cartilage. Example is the joint between the first rib and manubrium of the sternum. Chaitali prabhudesai

14 Types of Cartilaginous Joints
Symphyses: here the ends of the articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage but the bones are connected by a broad flat disc of fibrocartilage. All symphyses occur in the midline of the body Examples: pubic symphysis, junction of the manubrium and sternum, intervertebral joints. Functionally, this is an amphiarthrosis, a slightly movable joint. Chaitali prabhudesai

15 Synovial Joints The unique characteristic of a synovial joint is presence of a space called synovial cavity between articulating bones Because the synovial joint allows the joint to be freely movable all synovial joints are classified as diarthoses The bones of synovial joint are covered by a layer of hyaline cartilage called articular cartilage The cartilage covers the articulating surface of the bone with a smooth slippery surface but does not bind them together It also helps to reduce friction between the joint during movement and help to absorb shock Chaitali prabhudesai

16 Synovial Joints Articular Capsule: A sleeve like articular capsule surrounds the synovial joint and unites the articulating bones It is composed of two layers a fibrous capsule usually consist of irregular dense connective tissue that attaches to the periosteum of articulating bone The flexibility of this capsule permits considerable movements ,while its tensile strength helps the bones from dislocation Chaitali prabhudesai

17 Synovial Joints The inner layer of this articular capsule is a synovial membrane which is composed of areolar connective tissue and elastic fibers At many synovial joints the synovial membrane includes accumulations of adipose tissue called articular fat pad e.g. knee joint Chaitali prabhudesai

18 Synovial Joints Synovial Fluid: The synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid ,a viscous clear or pale yellow fluid It forms a thin film over the surfaces with articular capsule Its functions include reducing friction by lubricating the joint, absorbing shock ,supplying o2 and nutrients to and removing co2 and metabolic waste from chondrocytes within articular cartilage Chaitali prabhudesai

19 Synovial Joints Bursae and Tendon Sheaths: The various movements of the body create friction between the moving parts Saclike structures called bursae are situated to alleviate friction in some joints like knee and shoulder They are filled with a small amount of fluid like the synovial fluid Tendon Sheaths also reduce friction at joints, they wrap around certain tendons that produce friction. Chaitali prabhudesai

20 Synovial Joints Chaitali prabhudesai

21 Types of Synovial Joints
Planar joints Hinge Joints Pivot Joints Condyloid Joints Saddle Joints Ball-and-Socket Joints- Chaitali prabhudesai

22 Types of Synovial Joints
Planar joints- the articulating surfaces are flat or slightly curved. Planar joints permit gliding movements These joints are said to be non axial because the motion they allow does not occur around an axis or around a plane Example are intercarpal joints, intertarsal joints, sternoclavicular joints, acromioclavicular joints, sternocostal joints, vertebrocostal joints. Chaitali prabhudesai

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24 Types of Synovial Joints
Hinge Joints-the convex surface of one fits into the concave surface of another. The hinge joint produces an angular opening and closing motion like that of a hinged door In most joints one bone remains in a fixed position while the other moves around an axis These as monoaxial as they allow motion around a single axis Hinge joint permit only flexion and extension Eg. Knee, elbow, ankle, interphalangeal. Monaxial (uniaxial). Chaitali prabhudesai

25 Trochlea humerus Trochlear notch ulna Chaitali prabhudesai

26 Types of Synovial Joints
Pivot Joints-here the rounded or pointed surface of one bone articulates with a ring formed partly by another bone and partly by a ligament. This is monaxial ,as it allows rotation only around its own longitudinal axis Examples atlanto-axial joint, radioulnar joint :turns palm anteriorly and posteriorly. Chaitali prabhudesai

27 Angular ligament Head Of radius Radius ulna Chaitali prabhudesai

28 Types of Synovial Joints
Condyloid Joints-also called ellipsoidal joint. The convex oval-shaped projection of one fits into the oval-shaped depression of another. A condyloid joint is a biaxial joint because it permits movements around around two axis It allows flexion,Extension,Adduction,Abduction and circumduction Eg. Wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints. Biaxial. Chaitali prabhudesai

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30 Types of Synovial Joints
Saddle Joints-here the articular surface of one bone is saddle-shaped and the articular surface of the other fits into the “saddle”. Saddle joint is biaxial joint because it permits movements around around two axis It allows flexion,Extension,Adduction,Abduction and circumduction Eg. Carpometacarpal joint. Biaxial. Chaitali prabhudesai

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32 Types of Synovial Joints
Ball-and-Socket Joints- this consists of the ball-like surface of one bone fitting into a cuplike depression of another bone. These joints are multiaxial as they permit movement about three axis It allows flexion,Extension,Adduction,Abduction and circumduction and rotation Egs. Shoulder and hip joints. Chaitali prabhudesai

33 Glenoid Cavity of Scapula
Chaitali prabhudesai

34 Types of Movements Gliding: This is a simple movement in which relatively flat bone surfaces move side-to-side and back-and-forth with respect to one another There is no significant alteration of angle between the bones E.g. Intercarpal and Intertarsal joint Angular movements: Four angular movements may occur in various diarthrodial joints: flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction (F7.8). Angular movements increase or decrease the angle between two adjoining bones by moving in a single plane.

35 Types of Movements FLEXION When a bone is moved in an anterior-posterior plane in such a manner as to decrease the angle between it and its adjoining bone, flexion occurs. Examples include bending the elbow, bringing the thigh towards the abdomen, and bringing the calf of the leg toward the back of the thigh. Pulling the heel upward, thus lowering the toe region of a foot, is referred to as plantar flexion. Chaitali prabhudesai

36 Types of Movements EXTENSION Extension is the opposite of flexion. It causes the angle between adjoining bones to increase. Extension occurs when a flexed joint is moved back to the anatomical position, such as straightening the arm, thigh, and knee. Hyperextension occurs when the part is moved beyond the straight position, such as arching the back or bringing the limbs posteriorly beyond the plane of the body. Raising the toe region toward the shin is often considered to be extension of the foot, but is called dorsiflexion. Chaitali prabhudesai

37 Types of Movements ABDUCTION When a part, such as a limb, is moved away from the midline of the body, abduction occurs. In the case of the fingers and toes, abduction involves moving them away from the midline of the hand or foot. ADDUCTION Adduction, the reverse of abduction, involves the movement of a part toward the midline of the body, back toward the anatomical position. In the case of the fingers and toes, the movement is toward the midline of the hand or foot. Chaitali prabhudesai

38 Types of Movements Circular Movements
In addition to the four angular movements, four circular movements are allowed by some diarthrodial joints: circumduction, rotation, supination, and F7.8 pronation (F7.8) Chaitali prabhudesai

39 Types of Movements CIRCUMDUCTION :The joint motion known as circumduction delineates a cone. The base of the cone is outlined by the movement of the distal end of the bone, with the apex of the cone Iying in the articular cavity. The movement is actually a sequential combination of flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction. Circumduction is common at the hip and the shoulder joints, and is possible in other joints also. ROTATION The motion of a bone around a central axis is rotation. If the anterior surface of a bone such as the humerus or femur moves inward, it is called inward (medial) rotation. When the anterior surface turns outward it is outward (lateral) rotation.

40 Types of Movements Chaitali prabhudesai

41 Types of Movements SUPINATION The term used to describe the outward rotation of the forearm, causing the palms to face upward or forward and the radius and the ulna to be parallel, is supination. The forearms are supinated in the anatomical position. PRONATION The term used to describe the inward rotation of the forearm, causing the radius to cross diagonally over the ulna and the palms to face downward or backward, is pronation. Chaitali prabhudesai

42 Types of Movements Chaitali prabhudesai

43 Types of Movements Special Movements
Several special movements cannot be described as either angular or circular. These movements are elevation, depression, inversion, eversion, protraction, and retraction. Chaitali prabhudesai

44 Types of Movements ELEVATION The motion that raises a part is elevation. This term is most commonly used to refer to the raising of the scapula, as when shrugging the shoulders, or raising the mandible, as when closing the mouth. DEPRESSION The motion that lowers a part is depression. This term is often used to refer to the lowering of the scapula or the mandible. Chaitali prabhudesai

45 Types of Movements Chaitali prabhudesai

46 Types of Movements INVERSION The twisting of the foot so that the sole faces inward with its inner margin raised is inversion. EVERSION The twisting of the foot so that the sole faces outward with its outer margin raised is eversion. Chaitali prabhudesai

47 Types of Movements Chaitali prabhudesai

48 Types of Movements PROTRACTION The motion that moves a part, such as the mandible, forward is protraction. RETRACTION The motion that returns a protracted part to its usual position is retraction Chaitali prabhudesai

49 Types of Movements Chaitali prabhudesai

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