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MEDIASTINUM 14.12.08 . Dr.Kvk.

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Presentation on theme: "MEDIASTINUM 14.12.08 . Dr.Kvk."— Presentation transcript:


2 Defination:- It is a space between the two pleural cavities.
It is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity. It contains all the thoracic viscera and structures except the lungs. It is bounded anteriorly by the sternum,posteriorly by the thoracic vertebrae.


It is divided by an immaginary plane passing through the sternal angle anteriorly and posteriorly by the intervertebral discs between T4 &T5. This plane is called transverse thoracic plane. Superior mediastinum lies above this plane. Inferior mediastinum lies below this plane.

5 INFERIOR MEDIASTINUM Due to the presence of pericardium and heart it is further divided into:- Anterior mediastinum,infront of heart Middle mediastinum,pericardium &heart. Posterior mediastinum, behind the heart.

Superior mediastinum, Middle mediastinum, Anterior mediastinum, Posterior mediastinum.

7 Structures in the mediastinum
Thymus gland in children (anterior) Pericardial sack,heart,vessels(middle) Esophagus,aorta,thoracic duct,azygos vein(posterior) Trachea, great vessels(superior)

8 SUPERIOR MEDIASTINUM It lies above the transverse thoracic plane.
It contains aortic arches, thymus, terminal part of S.V.C.,brachiocephalic veins,Trachea and esophagus.

9 Structures in the superior meidiastinum

10 Thymus Thymus is located in the anterior mediastinum between the pericardium and sternum Thymus is present only in children After puberty thymus degenarates

11 Structures in the posterior mediastinum

12 ANTERIOR MEDIASTINUM It contains loose areolar connective tissue,
Lymphatic vessels, 2-3 anterior mediastinal lymph nodes. Branches of internal mammary artery, Pulmonary arteries,pulmonary veins, Phrenic nerves.

Thoracic part of aorta, Azygous and hemiazygous veins, Vagus and splancnic nerves, Esophagus, Thoracic duct and lymph nodes.

14 Esophagus &plexus

15 Descending thoracic aorta

16 APPLIED ANATOMY Tumours arising from thymus,Thymoma compresses the mediastinum. Pancoast tumour may compress the sympathetic ganglion and cause Horner’s syndrome. Pericardial effusion-cardiac tamponade due to pericardial effusion. Hilar group of lymph nodes enlargment leads to dysphagia and dyspnoea. Compression over recurrent laryngeal nerves lead to hoarseness of voice.

17 Anatomy Lecture Pericardium

18 Pericardium Is a double-walled sac that contains the heart and the roots of the great vessels.

19 Layers of pericardium

20 PERICARDIUM Peri= around Cardium= heart It is a fibro-serous sac
which surround the Heart and the roots of the large vessels It consist of: 1- The fibrous pericardium 2-The serous pericardium two layer: parietal layer Visceral layer 3- the sinuses of the pericardium (transverse – oblique )

Fibrous pericardium is made up of dense conective tissue Inferiorly is connected to diaphragm by percardio phrenic ligament Interiorly connected to the sternum by sterno pericardial ligament Superiorly,completely fused with the roots of the great vessels of the heart

22 PLUERA&PERICARDIUM Most of the pericardium surface is covered pluera the lung except and area posterior to sternum at the level of 4th 5th costal cartilage . Anteriorly related to anterior mediastinum and thymus in children Posteriorly related to esophagus,descenting aorta



25 Formation of pericardial cavity


27 Fibrous and serous pericardium
It is a conical sac which has Base: Attached to the central tendon of diaphragm Apex: Above the heart to the level of the sternal angle 4- surfaces : (anterior – posterior – 2 lateral) Serous It is a closed serous sac and has a parietal and a visceral layer The visceral layer is called epicardium


29 Innervations The fibrous pericardium and the parietal layer of the serous pericardium are sensory innervated by the phrenic nerves (C3-C5). The epicardium receives autonomic innervation from the underlying heart


31 Diseases Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium. It can cause fluid to build up in the sac (pericardial effusion). Excessive amounts of fluid may lead to cardiac tamponade Pericardio centhesis removal of fluid from the pericardial cavity by inserting a needle

32 THANKYOU Dr.KUMAR Associate Professor thankyou

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