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Chapter 3 : Meat and Bones

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1 Chapter 3 : Meat and Bones
ANSC 4 Chapter 3 : Meat and Bones

2 Objectives ID and describe the major structures and functions of the musculoskeletal system Describe bone anatomy terms Differentiate between the axial and appendicular terms Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce terms related to diagnosis, pathology, and treatment

3 Warm Up Do you use more muscles frowning or smiling?

4 Structures of the Skeletal System
Bone: a form of connective tissue, hardest in the body Ossification: formation of bone Combining forms Oste/o, oss/e, oss/i Cartilage: another form of connective tissue, more elastic than bones Combining form: chondr/o

5 Ossification Parts of the process
Bone growth is balanced between the following: OsteoBlasts: immature bone cells that produce bony tissue Build OsteoClasts: phagocytic cells that eat away boney tissue Cut Osteocytes: mature osteoblast

6 Joints/Articulations
Connections between bones TYPES: Diarthroses Pivot or trochoid (Skull to neck) Ball and socket/ spheroid (Hip) Saddle Hinge/ ginglymus (Knee) Condyloid/ arthrodial (Wrist) Gliding Synarthoroses Suture : (skull) Amphiarthroses Symphysis : (pelvic girdle)

7 Joint Parts Bursa Synovial membrane and fluid
Fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in the areas of friction Synovial membrane and fluid Secretes synovial fluid, which acts like a lubricant to make joint movement smooth Air bubbles = joint cracking! This can cause damage resulting in arthritis type symptoms

8 Axial Skeleton : Parts Top to bottom Cranium Face
Frontal, parietal, occipital, (Formen/ Magnum) temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid, incisive, pterygoid Face Zygomatic, maxilla, mandible, palatine, lacrimal, incisive, nasal, vomer, nasal septum, hyoid Back ( Spinal / vertebral column) Vertebrae, body, arch, lamina, spinous process, transverse process, articular process, foramen, vertebral foramen, intervertebral discs Ribs Sternum, manubrium, body, xiphoid process, thoracic cavity/ rib cage

9 Human Skeleton Think about it: Do the human practice sheet.
Humans are mammals Many animals are related throughout evolution Do the human practice sheet. Print an animal skeleton and color the coordinating bone structures so they match the human skeleton


11 Appendicular Skeleton : parts
From the Front Scapula, clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, carpal bones, metcarpals, splint bones, phalanges, digits, ungulates (hooves), pastern bones, To the Back Pelvis, ilium, ischium, femur, femoral head and neck, patella, stifle joints, tibia, fibula, tarsus (small animals), hock


13 Testing… Testing… Arthocentesis: removal of liquid from a joint of analysis Arthography: inject contrast material for radiographic testing Arthoscopy: visually examine a joint using a fiber optic scope Radiology: study internal structures (Xrays)

14 Common Aliments of Bones
Arthritis: inflammation of joints causing pain Rheumatoid arthritis: autoimmune disorder of the connective tissues and joints Hip Dysplasia: abnormal development of pelvic joint. Head of femur and acetabulum do not align. (large breed dogs) Luxation: dislocation or displacement of a bone from its joint Subluxation: partial dislocation Osteoporosis: abnormal loss of bone density, increase in porosity

15 Medial Luxating Patella ( Toy Dog)
Closer view of knee with medial luxating patella. Instead of riding up and down normal groove patella is off to the side

16 Types of Fractures

17 Muscles : Types

18 Ligament vs. Tendon Ligament: Tendon
Band of fibrous connective tissue that connects one bone to another bone Tendon Band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone

19 How Muscles are labeled:
Positional: Pector: Chest Epaxial: above Intercostal: between the ribs Infra/Supra-spinatus: beneath or below/above Inferior: below or deep Medius: middle Superior: above Ex/In-ternus: outer/inner Orbicularis: surrounding

20 Muscle Labeling contin…
Directional: Rectus: straight Oblique: slanted Transverse: crosswise Sphincter: tight band Numerical Parts Bi: 2 Tri: 3 Quad: 4

21 Muscle Labeling… Size: Minimus: Small Maximus/ vastus: Large
Longissimus/gracilis: Narrow Latissimus: Broad Major Minor

22 Muscle Labeling: Last Slide!
Shape Deltoid: triangle Quadratus: square or 4 sided Rhomboideus: diamond Scalenus: Unequally 3-sided Serratus: saw toothed Teres: cylindrical

23 Work to complete Represent the different types of muscles
Sheet of paper Explain what they do Where might your find them? Finish chapter reviews Finish chptr3 worksheets

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