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Chapter 1. Anatomy The study of the structure of an organism Descriptive anatomy relates the individual parts of the body to functional systems Pathological.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1. Anatomy The study of the structure of an organism Descriptive anatomy relates the individual parts of the body to functional systems Pathological."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1

2 Anatomy The study of the structure of an organism Descriptive anatomy relates the individual parts of the body to functional systems Pathological anatomy refers to changes in structure as they relate to disease Gross /Microscopic Anatomy refers to levels of visibility of structures under study Developmental Anatomy studies the growth and development of the organism

3 Related Disciplines Cytology/Histology study cells and tissues Myology examines muscle form and function Arthrology studies the joint system for bones Osteology studies form and function of bones Neurology studies the nervous system

4 Physiology The study of the function of the living organism and its parts as well as the chemical processes involved.

5 Teratogen Causes teratogenesis The development of a severely malformed fetus Its effect must occur during prenatal development Alcohol- Fetal Alcohol syndrome, mental retardation, microcephaly Tobacco- growth retardation Heroin and morphine-Neonatal convulsions, tremors, death

6 Regions of the Body Trunk-Torso Thorax- Chest Abdomen-anterior abdominal wall Dorsal trunk Back Pelvis Hip bones Head Cranial portion- houses the brain and its components Facial portion- houses the mouth, pharynx, nasal cavity, and structures related to the upper airway and mastication

7 Regions of the Body Lower Extremity Thigh, Leg, Ankle, and Foot Upper Extremity Arm, forearm, Wrist and Hand

8 Orientation Anatomical Position Body is erect Palms, arms and hands face forward Axial Skeleton Head and Trunk Spinal column is the axis Appendicular Skeleton Includes the lower and upper limbs

9 Planes of the Body Illustration p.5 Transverse Section Divides body into upper and lower halves Midsagittal Section Divides body into right and left Coronal Section Divides body into front and back halves

10 Terms of Spatial Orientation Anterior=Ventral- Front of the Body Posterior=Dorsal- Back of the Body Peripheral-Away from the center Superficial-Near the surface Deep- Further from the surface External- outside Internal- within the body Prone-on the belly Supine- on the back

11 Terms of Spatial Orientation Lateral- toward the side Rostral- toward the head Proximal- toward the origin of a structure of the body (up)- in reference to limbs Flexion-bending at a joint Extension- extend out, stretch Dorsiflexion-Bending that brings dorsal (back) surfaces closer together e.g. Hyperextension (knee, back) Distal- away from midline (down)- in reference to limbs Medial- towards the midline







18 Types of Tissues Epithelial Tissue Connective Tissue Muscular Tissue Nervous Tissue

19 The organization of Tissue

20 Types of Tissues



23 Epithelial Tissue Superficial layer of mucous membranes and the cells constituting the skin Shortage of intercellular material Tightly packed sheet, a protective quality May be many layers Lines nearly all of the cavities of the body as well as the tubes that connect them May have cilia or hair-like protrusions that actively beat to remove contaminants from the epithelial surface

24 Epithelial Tissue

25 Connective Tissue Most complex= specialized for the purposes of support and protection Composed predominantly of intercellular material, known as the matrix May be solid, liquid or gel-like Areolar Tissue-loose connective tissue Fibrous Tissue-binds structures together Cartilage has unique properties of strength and elasticity

26 Connective Tissue Blood- fluid component is plasma and blood cells are suspended in this matrix Bone-hardest of all connective tissues- compact and spongy.

27 Connective Tissue

28 Muscle Tissue Are capable of being stimulated to contract Striated-skeletal muscle- it is used to move skeletal structures Smooth muscle- digestive tract and blood vessels, generally sheetlike with spindle-shaped cells Cardiac muscle- cells interconnect in a net like fashion P. 15 for illustration

29 Muscle Tissue


31 Nervous Tissue Highly specialized communicative tissue Consists of neurons or nerve cells that take on a variety of forms Transmits information from one neuron to another Transmits information from neurons to muscles Transmits information from sensory receptors to other neural structures

32 Nervous Tissue

33 Tissue Aggregates The basic body tissues are used to form larger structures Organs Bones Muscles Joints

34 Tissue Aggregates Fascia- surrounds organs, being a sheet-like membrane that may be either dense or filmy, thin, or thick. Ligaments-binds organs together or hold structures in place Tendons-provides a means of attaching muscle to bone or cartilage Bones-Provide a rigid skeletal support and protect organs and soft tissues

35 Tissue Aggregates Bones All bone begins as a cartilaginous mass Points of articulation or joining between bones are comprised of cartilage Rigid skeletal support Protect organs and soft tissues Characterized by length or shape Blood cell production occurs within the cavities of the spongy bone trabeculae Illustration P. 19

36 Tissue Aggregates Joints Union of bones with other bones, or cartilage with other cartilage Classified based on the degree of movement they permit Synarthrodial/ Fibrous joints- have little movement, i.e. joints between bones in the skull (suture between the two parietal bones), a socket and tooth Ampiarthrodial/ Cartilaginous joints-permit limited mobility, cartilage provides the union between two bones, i.e. between the disks of the vertebral column Diarthrodial/ Synovial joints-Highly mobile, lubricating synovial fluid is contained within the articular capsule Sutures- see p. 22 for illustration and description

37 Synarthrodial (Fibrous)

38 Ampiarthrodial (Cartilage)

39 Diarthrodial (Synovial)

40 Tissue Aggregates Muscle Bound groups of muscle fibers with functional unity Fascia covers them Endowed with a tendon to permit attachment to skeletal structure Have a nerve supply to provide stimulation of the contracting bundle of tissue Have a vascular supply to meet their nutrient needs Can contract to approximately one-half its original length

41 Tissue Aggregates Muscle Exert force only by shortening the distance between two points and can contract only in a straight line Origin=Point of attachment of the least mobile element Insertion=Point of attachment that moves as a result of muscle contraction Agonists= Muscles that move a structure Antagonists=Muscles that oppose a given movement Synergists=Muscles that stabilize structures Are innervated or supplied by a single nerve

42 Body Systems Respiratory Systems Respiratory passageway, lungs, trachea Phonatory System Components of the respiratory system, laryngeal structures and the digestive system Articulatory System Parts of the anatomically defined digestive and respiratory systems (tongue, lips, teeth, soft palate, etc.) Resonatory System Nasal cavity, soft palate and portions of the respiratory and digestive systems

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