Which structures are included in the skeletal system? Bones Cartilage Fibrous Membranes Joints
What occurs during Intramembranous Ossification? Fibrous membrane forms on the outside of the cartilage. Ossification centers form between the fibrous membrane and cartilage. Osteoid is secreted from the oss. Centers. Clavicles and skull formed.
What occurs during Endochondral Ossification? Ossification centers form within the cartilage. Osteoid secreted from oss. Centers Bone collar formed just under fibrous membrane (est. during Intra.Oss.). Spongy bone forms on innermost region, outerlayers of osteocytes lament to form compact bone. Osteoclasts devour innermost spongy bone to form medullary cavity. All other bones formed.
What occurs during Postnatal Growth? Lengthening of bones Widening of bones Hormone regulation
What is the axial region of the skeleton? Very center Skull Vertebra Ribs Pelvis
What is the appendicular region of the skeleton? Off center Shoulders Hips Limbs
What are some examples of flat bones? Skull / Cranial Bones Sternum
What are some examples of short bones? Wrist Ankle
What are some examples of Irregular Bones? Vertebrae Hip Pelvic
What are some examples of Long bones? Limbs Phalanges
What is the function of a flat bone? Protection Like a plate of armor
What is the function of a short bone? Allow for increased mobility
What is the function of an Irregular Bone? Allow for attachment sites for ligaments Connect Joints / Increase # of Joints
What is the function of Long Bones? Structure & Support Weight Bearing
What is the function of the skeletal system? Support Protection Movement Mineral & Hormone Storage Blood Cell Formation (in the marrow)
What is compact bone? The outermost layer of bone Dense + Solid
What is spongy bone? The innermost bone Hole-y / Porous Little spines of bone = Trabeculae
What do you call the ends of a Long Bone? Epiphyses
What do you call the shaft / center of a long bone? Diaphysis
What is the Epiphyseal Line? Remnant of Epiphyseal Plate Where cartilage used to grow/divide to allow for pubescent growth Found in the Epiphysis
What is the Periosteum? Outermost fibrous membrane Surrounds compact bone
What is the Endosteum? The innermost fibrous membrane Surrounds spongy bone
What causes bone injury? Increased weight Unusual twisting Unusual Rotation
What is a greenstick fracture? Partial break of the bone Common in kids
What is a depressed fracture? Bone is sunken in Typical in skull
What is a compressed fracture? Bone is crushed into a million little pieces Common in porous bones
What is a spiral fracture? Ragged break Break on the diagonal Caused by unusual twisting
What is a comminuted fracture? Bone breaks into 3 or more pieces
What is an epiphyseal fracture? Break @ Epiphyseal Plate Common in kids Common in areas where cartilage is FRESH OR Common in areas where cartilage is breaking down
What are the events in bone repair? (In Order) Hematoma Formation Fibrocartilaginous Callus Formation Bony Callus Formation Final Repair
What would happen if your bones skipped Fibrocartilagionous Callus Formation during bone repair? Blood and Dead Bone Cells would remain at the fracture site. Bone would not begin repair. Collagen fibers would not be secreted to connect bone fragments.
What are the regions of the vertebral column? [Superior] Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacral [Inferior]
What is the purpose of a joint? Allow for circular movement Allow for angular movement Increase mobility / Decrease rigidity
Where can you find a Condyloid Joint? Wrist Knuckles
Where can you find a Plane Joint? Intercarpal Intertarsal Vertebrae
Where can you find a Saddle Joint? Thumbs Metacarpals
Where can you find a Ball & Socket Joint? Shoulders Hips
What is skeletal muscle? On top of bones Voluntary movement Overall Body mobility
What is cardiac muscle? Heart muscle Involuntary movement Heartbeat & Blood pumping
What is smooth muscle? Digestive, Excretive, Respiratory Organs Involuntary movement Squeezing
What is the function of the muscular system? Overall body movement Maintain bipedal posture Generate heat during contraction
What are the structures within skeletal muscle? [Microscopic] Myofilament (Actin & Myosin) Sarcomere Myofibril (Organelle) Muscle Fiber (cell) Fascicle (bundles w/in whole muscle) Muscle [Macroscopic]
What is a sarcomere? The contractile unit/portion within the myofibril
What are “other words” for actin and myosin? Thick Filament = Actin Thin Filament = Myosin
What is a myofibril? The unique muscle cell organelle which contains contractile elements.
What must occur PRIOR to the opening of the Na/K channels (during a muscle contraction)? Binding of ACh (acetylcholine) to the muscle at the neuromuscular junction.
What must occur for a muscle to relax / set up for the next contraction? Calcium must be returned to the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Troponin-Tropomyosin must recover actin Myosin must release actin ATP reloads onto myosin
What “slides” during a muscle contraction? Actin & Myosin The Myofilaments Hence…. Sliding Filament Theory
What occurs during a muscle contraction (list out the events)? Depolarization of sarcolemma Generation of action potential across muscle Release of Ca ions from sarcoplasmic reticulum Binding of Ca to troponin-tropomyosin-actin structure Conformation change of troponin-tropomyosin structure Actin exposed Attachment of myosin head to actin Myosin uses energy in ATP Actin & Myosin Slide towards center of sarcomere Ca ions back to sarcoplasmic reticulum Tropomyosion recovers actin, relaxation
Which bones are in your arms? Bicep Area = Humerus Forearm Area = Radius + Ulna
Which bones are in your legs? Thigh Area = Femur Shin Area = Tibia & Fibula
Which bones are in your jaws? Upper = Maxilla Lower = Mandible
Which bones make up your Thoracic Region? Ribs… Which connect to the vertebra in back…. BUT connect to the sternum in the front…
Which bones are included in your pelvic girdle? Iliac crest Pubis Ischial spine
What is the ONE thing that would screw up mummification?! BACTERIA!!!
How can you tell if someone suffered from arthritis? Lack of cartilage in between joints Bones sitting on top of each other Possibly smaller bones (due to wearing down / friction)
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