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Joints Compiled by Marc Garcia. Classification Joints can be classified: 1. Structurally 2. by their freedom of movement 3. Synovial joints can be classified.

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Presentation on theme: "Joints Compiled by Marc Garcia. Classification Joints can be classified: 1. Structurally 2. by their freedom of movement 3. Synovial joints can be classified."— Presentation transcript:

1 Joints Compiled by Marc Garcia

2 Classification Joints can be classified: 1. Structurally 2. by their freedom of movement 3. Synovial joints can be classified by: Type of motion Range of motion

3 Freedom of Movement Joints can be: Synarthroses ▪ immoveable Amphiarthroses ▪ slightly moveable Diarthroses ▪ freely moveable

4 Structural Classifications Think: What type of tissue is the joint made of? How are the two bones held together?

5 Structural Classifications Fibrous Joints Made of fibrous connective tissue  collagen fibers Sutures  Synarthrotic  Sagittal suture  Lambdoid suture  Coronal suture  Squamous suture  Between palatine processes of the maxillae

6 Structural Classifications Fibrous Gomphoses Tooth and Alveolar socket  Synarthrotic  Held by the periodontal ligament

7 Structural Classifications Fibrous Syndesmoses Distal tibiofibular joint  Held by interosseous ligament  Amphiarthrotic Distal radioulnar  Held by interosseous ligament  Amphiarthrotic

8 Structural Classifications Cartilaginous Cartilaginous Joints are held together by cartilage Hyaline cartilage Fibrocartilage There are two kinds Symphyses Synchondroses

9 Structural Classifications Cartilaginous Symphyses Two bones joined by fibrocartilage ▪ Intervertebral discs Amphiarthrotic ▪ Pubic symphysis Synarthrotic in males Amphiarthrotic in females

10 Structural Classifications Cartilaginous Synchondroses A joint made of hyaline cartilage ▪ Epiphyseal plate Only in long bones Synarthrotic ▪ Costal cartilage Only between ribs/sternum and clavicle/sternum Synarthrotic

11 Structural Classifications Synovial Synovial joints Joined by a synovial cavity ▪ Articular cartilage covering bone ends ▪ Fibrous capsule surrounding joint ▪ Inner layer of capsule is the synovial membrane Membrane secretes synovial fluid Membrane composed of areolar tissue

12 Structural Classifications Synovial Some may have a meniscus ▪ Pads of fibrocartilage ▪Absorb pressure and shock ▪Also known as articular discs Some may have accessory ligaments ▪Lie outside of capsule Some may have bursae ▪Synovial-filled fluid sacs ▪Reduce friction between muscles and between tendons/bones

13 Structural Classifications Synovial May be classified by ▪ Range of motion ▪ Type of motion Range of Motion ▪ Monaxial ▪ Biaxial ▪ Multiaxial

14 Structural Classifications Synovial Type of motion ▪ Hinge joints Monaxial Interphalangeal, humeroulnar, humero- radial, tibiofemoral, talocrural, atlantooccipital ▪ Pivot joints One bone fits into ring-like ligament Monaxial Atlantoaxial, proximal radioulnar

15 Structural Classifications Synovial Type of motion (cont.) ▪ Gliding (plane) joints Flat or slightly concave/convex surfaces The only amphiarthrotic synovial joint Monaxial Intercarpal, intertarsal, between articular processes of vertebrae, sternoclavicular, patellofemoral

16 Structural Classifications Synovial Type of motion (cont.) ▪ Saddle joint Two surfaces, each concave in one direction, convex in the other. Biaxial Trapeziometacarpal I ▪ Condyloid (ellipsoid) joints Oval surface fits into depression in another Biaxial Radiocarpal, metacarpophalangeal

17 Structural Classifications Synovial Type of motion (cont.) ▪ Ball-and-socket joints Hemispherical head fits into cup Multiaxial Humeroscapular, Coxal

18 Structural Classifications Synovial Type of motion (cont.) ▪ Some joints are a combination Temporomandibular – condyloid, hinge, and gliding

19 Movement of Diathroses Flexion ▪ Decrease the angle of a joint ▪ Like bending your elbow ▪ Ball & Socket, Condyloid, Hinge Extension ▪ Straightens a joint ▪ Like raising your head ▪ Ball & Socket, Condyloid, Hinge

20 Movement of Diathroses Hyperextension ▪ Extension beyond 180 degrees ▪ Like pushing palms back or ▪ Like looking up at sky ▪ Condyloid, Hinge, (Ball & Socket)

21 Movement of Diathroses Abduction ▪ Movement away from midsagittal line ▪ Like spreading fingers or legs ▪ Ball & Socket, Condyloid, (Saddle) Adduction ▪ Returning to midsagittal line ▪ Like putting arms down to sides ▪ Ball & Socket, Condyloid, (Saddle)

22 Movement of Diathroses Circumduction ▪ Making a circular motion ▪ Like rolling your head or ▪ Making circles with your arms ▪ Actually a combination of Flexion, Abduction, Extension, Adduction ▪ Ball & Socket, Condyloid

23 Movement of Diathroses Opposition ▪ Moving thumb towards fingertips ▪ Give us “opposable thumbs” Reposition ▪ Returning thumb to original position ▪ Trapeziometacarpal (thumb) is the only joint capable of these (Saddle)

24 Movement of Diathroses Lateral Rotation ▪ Bone turns on a longitudinal axis ▪ Like twisting elbow; NOT forearm! ▪ Like twisting trunk or head ▪ Lateral means away from midline Medial Rotaion ▪ Same, but medial means towards midline ▪ Ball & Socket, Pivot

25 Movement of Diathroses Supination ▪ Twisting forearm so palm faces foward ▪ Refers only to forearm ▪ Like holding a “bowl of soup” ▪ Pivot Pronate ▪ Twisting forearm so palm faces back ▪ Pivot

26 Movement of Diathroses Elevation ▪ Raising vertically ▪ Like shrugging shoulders ▪ Temporomandibular ▪ Sternoclvicular Depression ▪ Lowering vertically ▪ Same joints as above

27 Movement of Diathroses Protraction ▪ Moving forward ▪ Like jutting your jaw out ▪ Temporomandibular Retraction ▪ Moving towards rear ▪ Temporomandibular

28 Movement of Diathroses Lateral Excursion ▪ Moving to side away from midline ▪ Like when you bite the corner of lip ▪ Temporomandibular Medial Excursion ▪ Returning sideways to midline ▪ Temporomandibular

29 Movement of Diathroses Dorsiflexion ▪ Pointing foot up ▪ Like trying to walk on your heels ▪ Talocrural (Ankle) Plantarflexion ▪ Pointing foot down ▪ Think of pointing to “plants” on ground ▪ Talocrural (Ankle)

30 Movement of Diathroses Inversion ▪ Turning soles towards midline ▪ Think turn “in” ▪ Talocrural (Ankle) Eversion ▪ Turning soles towards sides ▪ Talocrural (Ankle)

31 Quiz

32 JointHeld together by: Freedom of Movement Number of axes Capable of: PivotSynovial cavityDiarthrosisMonaxialRotation Supination/Pronation Syn- chondrosis CartilaginousSynarthrosis GomphosisFibrousSynarthrosis HingeSynovial cavityDiarthrosisMonaxialFlexion, extension, hyperextesion CondyloidSynovial cavityDiarthrosisBiaxialFlexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction, circumduction SutureFibrousSynarthrosis GlidingSynovial cavityAmphi- arthrosis Monaxial

33 JointHeld together by: Freedom of Movement Number of axes Capable of: Syn- desmosis FibrousAmphi- arthrosis Ball-and- Socket Synovial cavityDiarthrosisMulti- axial Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, lateral and medial rotation SymphysisCartilaginousSynarthrosis/ Amphi- arthrosis Temporo- mandibular Synovial cavityDiarthrosisSpecialElevation, depression, protraction, retraction, lateral/medial excursion SaddleSynovial cavityDiarthrosisBiaxialOpposition, reposition, adduction, abduction Ankle (Talocrural) Synovial cavityDiarthrosisSpecialDorsiflexion, Plantarflexion, Inversion, Eversion

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35 JointHeld together by: Freedom of Movement Number of axes Type of Motion Capable of: Atlanto- axial Synovial cavityDiarthrosisMonaxialPivotRotation Atlanto- occipital Synovial cavityDiarthrosisMonaxialHingeFlexion, extension hyperextension Costal Cartilage Synchondrosis, cartilaginous Synarthrosis CoxalSynovial cavityDiarthrosisMulti- axial Ball & Socket Flexion, extension, adduction, abduct. circumduction, rotation Cranial Sutures Sutures, Fibrous Synarthrosis Distal radioulnar Syndesmoses, Fibrous Amphi- arthrosis

36 JointHeld together by: Freedom of Movement Number of axes Type of Motion Capable of: Distal tibiofibular Syndesmosus, Fibrous Amphi- arthrosis Epiphyseal Plate SynchondrosisSynarthrosis Humero- radial Synovial cavityDiarthrosisMonaxialHingeFlexion, extension Humero- ulnar Synovial cavityDiarthrosisMonaxialHingeFlexion, extension Humero- scapular Synovial cavityDiarthrosisMulti- axial Ball & Socket Flexion, extension adduction, abduc circumduction, rotation Intercarpal/ Intertarsal Synovial cavityAmphi- arthrosis MonaxialGliding

37 JointHeld together by: Freedom of Movement Number of axes Type of Motion Capable of: Inter- phalangeal Synovial cavityDiarthrosisMonaxialHingeFlexion, extension Inter- vertebral Synchondrosis, cartilaginous Amphi- arthrosis Metacarpo- phalangeal Synovial cavityDiarthrosisBiaxialCon- dyloid Abduction, adduction Patello- femoral Synovial cavityAmphi- arthrosis MonaxialGliding Proximal radioulnar Synovial cavityDiarthrosisMonaxialPivotRotation, pronation, supination Pubic Symphysis Symphysis, cartilaginous Synarthrosis /amphi-

38 JointHeld together by: Freedom of Movement Number of axes Type of Motion Capable of: Radio- carpal Synovial cavity DiarthrosisBiaxialCon- dyloid Flexion, extension hyperextension, abduction, adduc Sterno- clavicular Synovial cavity Amphi- arthrosis MonaxialGlidingElevation, depression, protraction, retraction TalocruralSynovial cavity DiarthrosisBiaxialHingeDorsiflexion, Plantar Flexion, Inversion, Eversion Temporo- mandibular Synovial cavity DiarthrosisMulti- axial Con- dyloid, hinge, gliding Elevation, depres- sion,protraction, retraction, lateral and medial excursion

39 JointHeld together by: Freedom of Movement Number of axes Type of Motion Capable of: Tibio- femoral Synovial cavityDiarthrosisMonaxialHingeFlexion, extension, slight rotation Tooth/ Alveolar Socket Gomphosis, Fibrous Synarthrosis Trapezio- metacarpal Synovial cavityDiarthrosisBiaxialSaddleOpposition, Reposition Articular processes of vertebrae Symphysis, Cartilaginous Amphi- arthrosis

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