SUTURE suture: connection between bones by fibrous tissue. a. suture serrata : interrupted margin bones. exp : interfrontal joint b. suture squamosa : overlapping margin of the bones. exp: between pars squamosa temporal with ossa parietal. c. suture plana (=harmonia): bone margin flat or a little bid rough. exp: suture internasal
SYNDESMOSIS Connected by white fibrous tissue or elastic tissue or mix both tissue. exp: between ossa metacarpal. fixing between cartilago costae. fusion radius-ulna and tibia-fibula by fibrous tissue.
PERSENDIAN CARTILAGENOUS Parts of the bone is cartilage form connected by fibrocartilago and hyalin cartilage or both combination. The movement depend on their joint surface and their medium elasticity. example: 1. synchondrosis (cartilage hyalin joimt) 2. symphysis (fibrocartilagenous joint)
SYNOVIAL JOINT Previosly term as diarthrosis that have characteristic such as joint cavity with has synovial membrane in the capsule synovial and their mobility. Term as moveable joints or true articulation.
SYARAT PERS SYNOVIAL 1. Joint surface (facies articularis): usually smooth and has several form. Made by compact bone which different from usual compact in general histologically. In several case their surface has fossa synovial. 2. Cartilage joint: usually hyalin cartilage bone.
3. Capsula articularis :is a simple tube form which the tip attach to surrounding facies articularis. consist of 2 layers : - outer layer: fibrous layer =capsula ligament. The thickness has variation. - inner layer: synovial / membrane. produce synovia (liquid) for lubricant the joints.
4. Cavum articulare : covered by synovial membrane and cartilago articulare. Usually contain enough synovial liquid for lubricant the joint.
5. Ligamentum : is a strong ribbon like or membrane, generally compose of white fibrous tissue, which fixing the bone; moveable but not elastic. Ligamentum
6. Disci or menisci articularis : is a cartilago fibrousa plate or compact fibrousa tissue which place between cartilage articulares, and divide joint cavity partially or whole part into 2 separated room. this discus give joint surface become fit each other make the movement more extended and more variation. Reduce bumping between bones hardly.
7. Labrum glenoidale : is a fibro-cartilage ring which circle margin joint cavity. It make the cavity extended and to avoid fracture margin of the bone joint.
BLOOD VESSELS & NERVE Artery make anastomose around big joint and make several branch for joint capsula. Membrane synovial have rete capillary which make loop surround cartilage joint margin, but it is not go into the cavity. Venae make plexus. Has more nerve fibers near and inside and surrounding synovial membrane.
MOVEMENT OF THE JOINT 1. GLIDING: movement on the flat surface; example: joint between proc articularis vert. cervicalis.
2. ELBOW JOINT : movement surrounding one or several bones axis. - flexio : make the joint angle smaller. - extensio : make the joint angle bigger. flexio extensio
3. CIRCUMDUCTION (pers peluru): in the shoulder and leg.
4. ROTATION: rotate of the segmen on axis longitudinal another segmen which make joint. examp: atlanto-axialis joint.
ACCESSORIUS STRUKTURE Connexted ot the muscles is synovial membrane and fascia. A. synovial membrane :is a thin sac, same as synovial membrane joint and have the same function. there are 2 types: 1. bursa synovialis : simple sac which connected on the point that has high pressure between tendon or muscle and structure below them, usually on the elevated bone.
2. vagina synovialis tendinis : its different from the bursa, compose of wrapping sac which cover the tendon make the two layers can be differented., inner layer attach to the tendon but outer layer line the canal where the tendon is. both layers which covers the tendon term as mesotendon.
B. fascia : is a connective tissue layer, compose of several bundel white fibers which more or less mixing with elastis fibers. Consist of 2 layers that can be differentiated : fascia superficialis. fascia profunda.
FASCIA SUPERFICIALIS Is a subcutaneous layer compose of loose connective tissue which generally contain more or less fat.
FASCIA PROFUNDA Compose of one or more compact fibrous tissue layer.. Inner layer may be attach to the structure below them, but in most part its attach to the skeleton, ligaments, tendon. In several place it make layers from the inner surface fascia, passing through between muscles and attach to the bone or lig, term as septa intermuscularia
Sulcus where the tendon inside change to be a canal by a ribbon or fascia layer term as vaginal or annular ligament ( lig. vaginale) Bursae that can be see in several part between fascia and struktur below them term as : bursae subfacial, moreover between fascia and skin term as: bursae subcutaneous.
tendon Bursa synovial tendon Bursa synovialis tendinis mesotendon retinaculum bone
MYOLOGY Is a science which study of muscles and their accesory structure. Musculus (m) or musculi (mm) have specificity that can make contraction when it get stimulus (impuls).
MUSCLE IDENTIFICATION, according to : - Muscle Name - Form and their position - Origo and Insertio - Characteristic Movement - Structure - Connection of the muscle with surrounding area - Vascularisation and Innervation MIOLOGI
MUSCLE DISCRIPTON ACCORDING TO: 1. name: basically can be several consideration such as: action, form, position, direction.: m. flexor carpi radialis. 2. form: can be several form(triangular, long (longus) or circle (m.sphincter, orbicularis). 3. attachment: usually on the bone, sometimes on cartilage,lig, fascia or skin.
4. action: according to phisiology action (m.extensor atau flexor) 5. structure : include muscle fibers direction, exp: triceps, digastricus. in the long muscle panjang on the leg, origo term as caput, if fusiform structure the wider part of the muscle term as venter. -unipennatus: muscle fibers oblique. -bipennatus : muscle fibers has 2 direction like feather. -multipennatus: several fibers direction.
6. connection : its has corelation with topografi anatomy ( m.intercostalis). 7. blood supply & nerve: its important in clinical basic, nerves important in determining homology
insertio : place for attaching muscle which far from median plane of the body or the direction to distal, synonym punctum mobile. origo : attaching place for muscle which near median plane of the body or the direction to dorsal, synonym punctum fixum. tendo : is a ribbon like compose of compact white fibrous tissue for attaching the muscle to the bone. Aponeurosa :wide fibrousa layer which has same function as tendo.
MUSCLE FIBERS FORM Paralel fibers fusiformisunipennatusbipennatusmultipennatus
TRACTUS URO-GENITALIA Sistema Uropoetica: Ren, Ureter, Vesica Urinaria,Urethra Sistema Genitalia: 1. Masculina, : Testes, Scrotum, Epidi- dymis, urethra dan penis serta bbrp kljr pendukung. 2. Feminina, : Ovarium, tuba fallopii oviduct, uterus, cervic, vagina, vulva and several supporting glands.
NEUROLOGY Science which study central nerve system and periphery Compose of: Encephalon, Medulla Spinalis, Neuron, gangglion, nerve branch central and Periphery, simphatic and parasimpati nerves, reflex and coordination in the body.