2SUTURE suture: connection between bones by fibrous tissue. a. suture serrata : interrupted margin bones.exp : interfrontal jointb. suture squamosa : overlapping margin of the bones. exp: between pars squamosa temporal with ossa parietal.c. suture plana (=harmonia): bone margin flat or a little bid rough. exp: suture internasal
8PERSENDIAN CARTILAGENOUS Parts of the bone is cartilage form connected by fibrocartilago and hyalin cartilage or both combination.The movement depend on their joint surface and their medium elasticity.example:1. synchondrosis (cartilage hyalin joimt)2. symphysis (fibrocartilagenous joint)
10Term as moveable joints or true articulation. SYNOVIAL JOINTPreviosly term as diarthrosis that have characteristic such as joint cavity with has synovial membrane in the capsule synovial and their mobility.Term as moveable joints or true articulation.
11usually hyalin cartilage bone. SYARAT PERS SYNOVIAL1. Joint surface (facies articularis):usually smooth and has several form. Made by compact bone which different from usual compact in general histologically. In several case their surface has fossa synovial.2. Cartilage joint:usually hyalin cartilage bone.
12- outer layer: fibrous layer =capsula 3. Capsula articularis :is a simple tube form which the tip attach to surrounding facies articularis.consist of 2 layers :- outer layer: fibrous layer =capsulaligament. The thickness has variation.- inner layer: synovial / membrane.produce synovia (liquid) for lubricant the joints.
134. Cavum articulare :covered by synovial membrane and cartilago articulare. Usually contain enough synovial liquid for lubricant the joint.
165. Ligamentum :is a strong ribbon like or membrane, generally compose of white fibrous tissue, which fixing the bone; moveable but not elastic.Ligamentum
176. Disci or menisci articularis : is a cartilago fibrousa plate or compact fibrousa tissue which place between cartilage articulares, and divide joint cavity partially or whole part into 2 separated room.this discus give joint surface become fit each other make the movement more extended and more variation. Reduce bumping between bones hardly.
197. Labrum glenoidale :is a fibro-cartilage ring which circle margin joint cavity. It make the cavity extended and to avoid fracture margin of the bone joint.
20BLOOD VESSELS & NERVEArtery make anastomose around big joint and make several branch for joint capsula. Membrane synovial have rete capillary which make loop surround cartilage joint margin, but it is not go into the cavity.Venae make plexus.Has more nerve fibers near and inside and surrounding synovial membrane.
22MOVEMENT OF THE JOINT1. GLIDING: movement on the flat surface; example: joint between proc articularis vert. cervicalis.
232. ELBOW JOINT : movement surrounding one or several bones axis. - flexio : make the joint angle smaller.- extensio : make the joint angle bigger.flexioextensio
243. CIRCUMDUCTION (pers peluru): in the shoulder and leg.
254. ROTATION: rotate of the segmen on axis longitudinal another segmen which make joint. examp: atlanto-axialis joint.
26ACCESSORIUS STRUKTURE Connexted ot the muscles is synovial membrane and fascia.A. synovial membrane :is a thin sac, same as synovial membrane joint and have the same function.there are 2 types:1. bursa synovialis : simple sac which connected on the point that has high pressure between tendon or muscle and structure below them, usually on the elevated bone.
272. vagina synovialis tendinis : its different from the bursa, compose of wrapping sac which cover the tendon make the two layers can be differented., inner layer attach to the tendon but outer layer line the canal where the tendon is.both layers which covers the tendon term as mesotendon.
28B. fascia : is a connective tissue layer, compose of several bundel white fibers which more or less mixing with elastis fibers.Consist of 2 layers that can be differentiated :fascia superficialis.fascia profunda.
29FASCIA SUPERFICIALISIs a subcutaneous layer compose of loose connective tissue which generally contain more or less fat.
30FASCIA PROFUNDA Compose of one or more compact fibrous tissue layer. . Inner layer may be attach to the structure below them, but in most part its attach to the skeleton , ligaments, tendon.In several place it make layers from the inner surface fascia, passing through between muscles and attach to the bone or lig, term as septa intermuscularia
31Sulcus where the tendon inside change to be a canal by a ribbon or fascia layer term as vaginal or annular ligament ( lig. vaginale)Bursae that can be see in several part between fascia and struktur below them term as : bursae subfacial, moreover between fascia and skin term as: bursae subcutaneous.
33MYOLOGYIs a science which study of muscles and their accesory structure.Musculus (m) or musculi (mm) have specificity that can make contraction when it get stimulus (impuls).
34MIOLOGI Muscle Name Form and their position Origo and Insertio MUSCLE IDENTIFICATION, according to :Muscle NameForm and their positionOrigo and InsertioCharacteristic MovementStructureConnection of the muscle with surrounding areaVascularisation and Innervation
36MUSCLE DISCRIPTON ACCORDING TO: 1. name: basically can be several consideration such as:action, form, position, direction.: m. flexor carpi radialis.2. form: can be several form(triangular, long (longus) or circle (m.sphincter, orbicularis).3. attachment: usually on the bone, sometimes on cartilage,lig, fascia or skin.
374. action: according to phisiology action (m.extensor atau flexor) 5. structure : include muscle fibers direction, exp: triceps, digastricus.in the long muscle panjang on the leg, origo term as caput, if fusiform structure the wider part of the muscle term as venter.-unipennatus: muscle fibers oblique.-bipennatus : muscle fibers has 2 direction like feather.-multipennatus: several fibers direction.
386. connection : its has corelation with topografi anatomy ( m 6. connection : its has corelation with topografi anatomy ( m.intercostalis).7. blood supply & nerve: its important in clinical basic, nerves important in determining homology
39insertio : place for attaching muscle which far from median plane of the body or the direction to distal, synonym punctum mobile.origo : attaching place for muscle which near median plane of the body or the direction to dorsal, synonym punctum fixum.tendo : is a ribbon like compose of compact white fibrous tissue for attaching the muscle to the bone.Aponeurosa :wide fibrousa layer which has same function as tendo.
40MUSCLE FIBERS FORM Paralel fibers fusiformis unipennatus bipennatus multipennatus
41TRACTUS URO-GENITALIA Sistema Uropoetica:Ren, Ureter, Vesica Urinaria,UrethraSistema Genitalia:1. Masculina, : Testes, Scrotum, Epidi-dymis, urethra dan penis serta bbrpkljr pendukung.2. Feminina, : Ovarium, tuba fallopiioviduct, uterus, cervic, vagina, vulvaand several supporting glands.
43NEUROLOGY Science which study central nerve system and periphery Compose of: Encephalon, Medulla Spinalis, Neuron, gangglion, nerve branch central and Periphery, simphatic and parasimpati nerves, reflex and coordination in the body.