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Anatomy & Physiology I Unit Six. The Four Body Membranes Cutaneous Mucous Serous Synovial.

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy & Physiology I Unit Six. The Four Body Membranes Cutaneous Mucous Serous Synovial."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy & Physiology I Unit Six

2 The Four Body Membranes Cutaneous Mucous Serous Synovial

3 Cutaneous Membrane It is external and the largest of the four membranes It is commonly called the skin It is the thickest, comprised of two layers

4 Cutaneous Membrane It is the driest of the four, but does produce fluids: > sebum – sebaceous glands > sweat – sudoriferous glands > milk – mammary glands

5 Cutaneous Membrane Cutaneous

6 Mucous Membranes They are internal, covering the openings to the external environment: + digestive – mouth & anus + respiratory – mouth & nasal + urinary – urethra + reproductive – urethra (males) & vagina (females)

7 Mucous Membranes They are thin, but comprised of three layers: + epithelial + loose connective (aerolar) + muscle

8 Mucous Membranes These membranes carry out three functions: + absorption + secretion + protection

9 Mucous Membranes They secrete mucus which can vary in its viscosity The mucus moistens the openings and passageways, increasing absorption and trapping pathogens & foreign particles

10 Serous Membranes They are internal membranes that line body cavities and cover internal organs These membranes are thin, comprised of two layers: + epithelial + loose connective (aerolar)

11 Serous Membranes They produce a thin, watery fluid called serous fluid which is used as an internal lubricant, reducing friction between internal structures

12 Synovial Membranes They are internal membranes that line specific skeletal joints called synovial joints These membranes are comprised of one layer of thick fibrous connective tissue

13 Synovial Membranes They produce a viscous, slippery fluid called synovial fluid which is used to lubricate the highly moveable synovial joints

14 F F F Functions of the Integumetary System Acts as a barrier to: * infection * water * UV radiation * chemicals Resists trauma

15 F F F Functions of the Integumetary System Assists in the production of vitamin D Sensory perception Thermoregulation

16 The Skin The skin (integument) is made up of two layers: epidermis – superficial & stratified epithelium dermis – deep connective tissue The skin is supported by another layer of connective tissue called the hypodermis

17 The Skin

18 The Skin The epidermis is made up of five layers which are composed mainly of two types of cells: keratinocytes melanocytes

19 The Skin Keratinocytes: epithelial cells that migrate from bottom to top of epidermis they die as they migrate they fill with keratin, flattening the cell and waterproofing them

20 The Skin Melanocytes: epithelial cells that produce the pigment melanin (brown to black) all people have approximately the same number color of skin and hair is determined by these cells

21 The Skin

22 The Skin The dermis is the thickest stratum of the skin, made up of a single layer of connective tissue It is composed mainly of collagen, but also contains elastic fibers and other fibrous connective tissues

23 The Skin The dermis contains: a rich supply of blood vessels nerves and nerve endings glands - oil and sweat muscle tissue the “roots” of hair and nails

24 The Skin

25 The Skin The deeper zone of the dermis can be stretched, resulting in tearing of the collagen fibers and producing scars called striae Superficial scars are produced after trauma when fibrous connective tissues replace epithelial tissues

26 The Skin The hypodermis is a layer of connective tissues that lies just inferior to the skin It is sometimes referred to as the subcutaneous layer It functions to attach the skin to the underlying tissues and act to pad the body

27 The Skin The hypodermis is comprised mainly of areolar and adipose tissues and is highly vascularized The fat found in the adipose tissues is unequally distributed in the hypodermis and accumulates differently in males and females

28 The Skin The fat of the hypodermis functions as an energy reservoir and has a slight insulative value

29 Derivatives of the Epidermis Hair - found only in mammals Sebaceous glands - oil glands Sudoriferous glands - sweat glands Nails - protecting the digit tips

30 Derivatives of the Epidermis Hair is composed mainly of keratin Has two basic parts: = follicle = shaft

31 Derivatives of the Epidermis Associated structures: = arrector pili = sebaceous glands

32 Derivatives of the Epidermis Sebaceous gland Sudoriferous glands

33 Derivatives of the Epidermis Sebaceous glands: = produce sebum (oil) = associated with each hair follicle = prevent desiccation

34 Derivatives of the Epidermis Sudoriferous glands: = produce sweat = distributed over entire body = two types

35 Derivatives of the Epidermis Eccrine sweat glands: = most abundant = secrete a watery fluid = functions in temperature regulation

36 Derivatives of the Epidermis Apocrine sweat glands: = few in select regions = secrete a viscous fluid = begin functioning at puberty

37 Derivatives of the Epidermis Other sudoriferous glands: = ceruminous glands - produce wax = mammary glands - produce milk

38 Derivatives of the Epidermis Nails: = composed mainly of keratin = protect & lend stability to the digit ends

39 Functions of the Skeletal System Support - provides a framework Protection - encloses vital organs Movement - provides points of attachment for muscles - functions as levers Production of blood cells Reservoir for minerals

40 Long Bone Anato my

41 Features of Compact Bone

42 Features of Spongy Bone

43 Calcium Homeostasis Osteoblasts - bone building cells - reduce blood Ca 2+ Ca 2+ levels Osteoclasts - bone reducing cells - increase blood levels

44 Calcium Homeostasis Calcitonin - hormone secreted by thyroid - stimulates osteoblasts to remove from the blood and deposit it in bone PTH - parathyroid hormone (hormone secreted by the parathyroids) - stimulates osteoclasts to remove from the bone and release it into the blood

45 Calcium Homeostasis Calcitriol - a form of vitamin D - stimulates increased Ca 2+ absorption from the intestine Growth hormone - secreted by the anterior pituitary - stimulates epiphyseal plates

46 Calcium Homeostasis Estrogen - secreted by the ovaries - increases bone deposition (mass) & feminizes the skeleton Testosterone - secreted by the testes - increases bone deposition (mass) & masculinization of the skeleton

47 Calcium Homeostasis

48 Calcium Homeostasis

49 Intramembranous Ossification

50 Endochondral Ossification

51 Bone Growth & Remodeling

52 Homeostatic Imbalances of Bone Rickets - caused by insufficient calcium intake or vitamin D deficiency - childhood disease - bones are pliable & will bow out - bones continue to grow

53 Homeostatic Imbalances of Bone Osteomalacia - caused by insufficient calcium intake or vitamin D deficiency - adult form of rickets - bones “soften” & become brittle

54 Homeostatic Imbalances of Bone Both rickets and osteomalacia can be eliminated by drinking milk fortified with vitamin D or increased exposure to sunlight

55 Homeostatic Imbalances of Bone Osteoporosis: - a group of diseases in which bone destruction outpaces bone deposition - affects entire skeleton, especially spongy bone - prevalent in post menopausal women

56 Homeostatic Imbalances of Bone Osteoporosis causes: - decreased estrogen levels - petite body form - insufficient exercise - smoking - poor diet Therapies slow down losses, but cannot reverse them

57 Joint Types & Characteristics Fibrous joints: - no joint cavity - typically immovable - bones held together with fibrous connective tissue Fibrous joint examples: - sutures of the skull - tibiofibular joint

58 Joint Types & Characteristics

59 Joint Types & Characteristics Cartilaginous joints: - no joint cavity - immovable to very limited movement - bones joined together with cartilage Cartilaginous joint examples: - epiphyseal plates - intervertebral discs

60 Joint Types & Characteristics

61 Joint Types & Characteristics Synovial joints: - joint cavity present - cavity encompasses the articular cartilages of the epiphyses - exhibit the greatest range of movement

62 Joint Types & Characteristics Synovial joint examples: - shoulder - knee - hip - wrist - elbow

63 Joint Types & Characteristics

64 Synovial Joint Types Plane: - flat surfaces that glide over each other - most limited synovial movement Plane joint examples: - carpals - tarsals - vertebral articular processes

65 Synovial Joint Types

66 Synovial Joint Types Condyloid: - convex surface of one articulates with concave surface of the other - slight movement in all directions Condyloid joint examples: - wrist (radiocarpal) - knuckles (metacarpalophalangeal)

67 Synovial Joint Types

68 Synovial Joint Types Saddle: - both articular surfaces are concave (saddle shaped) - similar to condyloid, but greater range of movement Saddle joint example: - thumb joint

69 Synovial Joint Types

70 Synovial Joint Types Hinge: - one articular surface is slightly concave while the other is deep - similar to saddle, but only uniaxial range of movement Hinge joint examples: - elbow - phalanges

71 Synovial Joint Types

72 Synovial Joint Types Pivot: - rounded end of one articular surface turns in a ring of bone or ligament of the other - large range of movement Pivot joint examples: - atlas & axis (C 1 (C 1 & C2)C2)C2)C2) - radioulnar joint

73 Synovial Joint Types

74 Synovial Joint Types Ball and socket: - rounded end of one articular surface turns in a socket of bone or ligament of the other - greatest range of movement Ball and socket joint examples: - shoulder - hip

75 Synovial Joint Types

76 Joint Connective Tissues Joints are made up of many other tissues and structures than just bone These other tissues and structures function to bind, cushion and stabilize joints

77 Joint Connective Tissues Intervertebral discs are fibrocartilaginous discs that connect vertebrae, forming a cartilaginous joint Ligaments are fibrous connective tissues that bind bone to bone Tendons are fibrous connective tissues that connect muscle to bone

78 Joint Connective Tissues Articular cartilages are found on the epiphyses of long bone and function to cushion and reduced friction in the joint Articular cartilages of the knee form C shaped extensions (menisci) that function to enhance the seating of the femur on the tibia

79 Joint Connective Tissues Bursae are flattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane that produce synovial fluid Bursae are found in synovial joints where bone, muscle, skin, tendons & ligaments rub against each other

80 Joint Connective Tissues Bursae act as bags of lubricant, reducing the friction between the structures that rub against each other

81 Joint Connective Tissues

82 The Knee Joint

83 The Knee Joint

84 Joint Disorders Sprain - stretched or torn ligaments - will usually heal on their own, but very slowly - complete tears must be repaired surgically

85 Joint Disorders Strain - excessively stretched or partially torn muscle - due to overuse or abuse - inflammation many times immobilizes the joint

86 Joint Disorders Bursitis - inflammation of the bursae due to trauma, friction or overuse Tendonitis - inflammation of tendon sheaths due to overuse

87 Joint Disorders Slipped disc - the bulging of an intervertebral disc due to overuse and abuse - the bulging disc presses against nerves causing a variety of symptoms

88 Joint Disorders Arthritis is a term used to describe over 100 types of inflammatory or degenerative diseases of the joints

89 Joint Disorders Osteoarthritis - “wear and tear” arthritis - chronic condition in which articular cartilages gradually wear away - onset is slow, progressive and irreversible

90 Joint Disorders Rheumatoid arthritis - a chronic inflammatory, autoimmune disorder - onset is quick and irreversible - synovial joint inflammation causes accumulations of fluid, developing swelling and damage to joint tissues - is crippling and debilitating

91 Joint Disorders Gout – a condition caused by the accumulation of uric acid in synovial joints - usually due a poor diet (one rich in fats) - can be corrected, but if left untreated can cause irreversible damage to joint tissues


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