Presentation on theme: "Nick Engelhardt – Doctor Grant Sturgis – Research Assistant Cody White – Technology Director Colt Wicking – Research Assistant."— Presentation transcript:
Nick Engelhardt – Doctor Grant Sturgis – Research Assistant Cody White – Technology Director Colt Wicking – Research Assistant
Important Vocabulary Articulation: A joint between bones of cartilage in the skeleton Arthrology: The study or description of joints. Kinesiology: The study of movement of body parts. Rheumatology: The study of medicine devoted to the joint diseases and related conditions. Dislocation: The displacement of a bone from a joint with tearing of ligaments, tendons, and articular capsules. Also known as “luxation”
Rheumatoid Arthritis – Patient One. Define: Attacks the joints and destroys the articular cartilage and degrades the stiffness of the joins. In addition this condition can diffuse inflammation in the lungs, pericardium and sclera. Autoimmunity (the ability of the body to recognize it’s own parts) plays a large role in this disease’s chronicity and progression.
Rheumatoid Arthritis continued Symptoms: Joint swelling Join pain Morning stiffness that last for hours Red puffy hands caused by rheumatoid nodules.
Treatment of R.A. Medications such as; Non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Steroids; Corticosteroid medications, such as Prednisone and Methylprednisolone (Medrol), and TNF-alpha inhibitors. All of which seem to have a uncomfortable side effects for the patient. Other treatments may include physical therapy, which is used to find less stressful ways of using your joints in everyday matters. Another option is to have surgery to help reduce the progression of this disorder
Preventions of R.A. No preventions are available because no exact cause of the disease is currently known.
Patient 2 - Osteoarthritis Define: Sometimes called degenerative joint disease or osteoarthritis, is the most common form of arthritis. This occurs when the cartilage in your joints wear down over time. Happens most often in hands, knees, hips, lower back, and neck.
Osteoarthritis Symptoms Symptoms Worsen over time. Pain comes from the following: Tenderness Stiffness Loss of flexibility Granting sensation Bone spurs
Treatments of Osteoarthritis Medications include: Acetaminophen NSAIDs Tramadol Stronger painkillers, such as: Codeine propoxyphene (Daryon), cortisone shots Also Physical Therapy and Surgery may treat Osteoarthritis.
Preventions of Osteoarthritis There are ways to help prevent osteoarthritis such as continuous exercise, trying to prevent injury to bones or joints, also controlling your weight. It is said that 1lb of weight is equivalent to 4 lbs of weight on weight bearing joints.
Patient 3 - Sprain A sprain is a forced moving of a joint which can result in pain and limit the use of said joints. If left unresolved sprains can involve into other conditions over time, some including arthritis.
Symptoms of the sprain Symptoms include: Mild to server pain in the affected joint. Worsens with movement or application of pressure Swelling Redness Or bruising around the joint. In severe cases, loss of mobility.
Treatments of the Sprain Use the RICE treatment. Which is: Rest Ice Compression Elevation Also, mild painkillers depending on the severity of the sprain
Preventions of sprains Careful and cautious behavior during stressful and mechanical activities and events such as playing sports or running. Also wearing the proper protection when doing strenuous activities.
Structural Classes of Joints Fibrous Joint – Joined by fibrous connective tissues, provided little or no movement, hold together bones suck as the skull and pelvis. Cartilaginous Joint – Joined by cartilage attached to bone, provides little movement. Found in the ribs and or spine. Synovial Joint – These are not directly joined, they provide a variety of different movements. A cavity filled with synovial fluid surrounds these joints to protect and lubricate the bones.
Functional Classification of Joints Our joints can be classified by function, or the degree of mobility they allow. Synarthrosis: Mostly fibrous joints that permit little to no mobility (ex. Skull) Amphiarthrosis: Mostly cartilaginous joints that permits slight mobility (ex. Vertebrae) Diathrosis: Synovial joints that permit a variety of movements (ex. Shoulder, Hip, Elbow, etc)
Fibrous joints Fibrous joints are made up of dense connective tissue consisting of collage. There are 3 different type of fibrous joints in the body Sutures: Found between the bones of the skull and only allow a tiny bit of movement. In babies sutures are wide to allow for slight movement for birth, which later become ridged. These joints are synarthrodial Syndesmosis: Found between long bones in the body like the fibula and tibia in the leg. These joints are amphiarthrodial and are moveable but not to such a degree as synovial joints. Gomphosis: Found between the root and tooth and the sockets of the maxilla or mandible.
Pictures of Fibrous Joints Suture SyndesmosisGomphosis
Cartilaginous Joints Cartilaginous joints are connected by cartilage, either fibro cartilage or hyaline. These joints allow more movement between then then fibrous joints, but not as much as synovial joints. These also form the growth regions of immature bones as well as inter-vertebral discs of the spinal column. There are Primary and Secondary cartilaginous joints. Primary Cartilaginous Joints: Also known as “synchondroses”. Bones are connected by hyaline/fibro cartilage, sometimes occurring between ossification centers. May ossify with age. Ex.: Human growth plate between ossification centers in long bones. These joints allow little to no movement. Secondary Cartilaginous Joints: Also known as “symphyses” and usually occur in the midline. Ex.: the manubriosternal joint, inter- vertebral discs, and the pubis symphysis. Articulating bones at the symphsis are covered with hyaline cartilage and had pads of fibro cartilages between them.
Synovial Joints There are 6 different types of synovial joints: Gliding joints (planar joints): These joints allow only gliding or sliding movement. (Ex.: Wrist) Hinge Joints: These joints act like a door hinge, allowing flexion and extension in just one plane. (Ex.: The elbow, and knee) Pivot Joints: There is where one bone rotates about another. (Ex.: Joint between the atlas and axis neck bones) Condyloid Joints (ellipsoidal joints): When two bones fit together in an odd shape. One bone is concave, one is convex. (Ex.: the wrist) Saddle Joints: Saddle joints, which resemble a saddle, permits the same movement as condyloid joints. (Ex.: The thumb) Ball and socket joints: These allow a wide range of movement. (Ex.: Shoulder and hip joints)