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PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing.

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Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing."— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PART F 5 The Skeletal System: Joints

2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Joints  Articulations of bones  Functions of joints  Hold bones together  Allow for mobility  Ways joints are classified  Functionally- by degree of movement  Structurally- by type of connective tissue

3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Functional Classification of Joints  Synarthroses  Immovable joints  Amphiarthroses  Slightly moveable joints  Diarthroses  Freely moveable joints

4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Structural Classification of Joints  Fibrous joints  Generally immovable  Cartilaginous joints  Immovable or slightly moveable  Synovial joints  Freely moveable

5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Summary of Joint Classes [Insert Table 5.3 here] Table 5.3

6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fibrous Joints- Synarthroses or Immoveable  Bones united by fibrous tissue  Example :  Sutures  Syndesmoses  Ligaments attach two bones  Allows more movement than sutures  Example : Distal end of tibia and fibula  Example : Distal end of radium and ulna

7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fibrous Joints- Synarthroses or Immoveable  Gomphoses- joint created by alveolar processes to hold teeth in

8 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fibrous Joints Figure 5.28a–b

9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cartilaginous Joints  Bones connected by cartilage  Example :  Symphysis joints- fibrocartilage  Pubic symphysis  Intervertebral joints  Synchondroses- hyaline cartilage  Connect ribs to sternum

10 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cartilaginous Joints Figure 5.28c–e

11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints  Most moveable, most numerous, and most complex  Articulating bones are separated by a joint cavity  Synovial fluid is found in the joint cavity

12 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints Figure 5.28f–h

13 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Features of Synovial Joints  Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) covers the ends of bones  A fibrous articular capsule encloses joint surfaces  A joint cavity is filled with synovial fluid  Synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid  Ligaments reinforce the joint

14 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Structures Associated with the Synovial Joint  Bursae—flattened fibrous sacs  Lined with synovial membranes  Filled with synovial fluid  Not actually part of the joint  Tendon sheath  Elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon

15 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Knee Joint

16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Synovial Joint Figure 5.29

17 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Synovial Joints  Nonaxial  Gliding does not involve rotation around axis  Plane joint – intercarpal joints of wrist  Uniaxial  Permit movement on one plane  Hinge Joint like jaw, knee, elbow  Pivot Joint- 1 st and 2 nd vertebrae

18 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Synovial Joints Figure 5.30a–c

19 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Synovial Joints  Biaxial  Permit movements in two planes  Saddle joint of thumb  Condyloid or ellipsoidal  Condyloid on bone fits into ellipsoidal socket like radius and carpal bones  Multiaxial  Movement in three or more planes  Ball and socket joints like hip and shoulder

20 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Synovial Joints Figure 5.30d–f

21 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Ordinary Body Movements  Flexion  Decreases the angle of the joint  Brings two bones closer together  Typical of hinge joints like knee and elbow  Extension  Opposite of flexion  Increases angle between two bones  Hyperextension  Stretching beyond anatomical position

22 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Ordinary Body Movements Figure 6.13a

23 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Ordinary Body Movements Figure 6.13b

24 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Ordinary Body Movements  Abduction  Movement of a limb away from the midline  Adduction  Opposite of abduction  Movement of a limb toward the midline

25 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Ordinary Body Movements Figure 6.13d

26 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Ordinary Body Movements  Rotation  Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis  Common in ball-and-socket joints  Example is when you move atlas around the dens of axis (shake your head “no”)

27 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Ordinary Body Movements Figure 6.13c

28 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Ordinary Body Movements  Circumduction  Combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction  Common in ball-and-socket joints

29 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Ordinary Body Movements Figure 6.13d

30 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements  Dorsiflexion  Lifting the foot so that the superior surface approaches the shin  Plantar flexion  Depressing the foot (pointing the toes)

31 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements Figure 6.13e

32 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements  Inversion  Turn sole of foot medially  Eversion  Turn sole of foot laterally

33 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements Figure 6.13f

34 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements  Supination  Forearm rotates laterally so palm faces anteriorly  Pronation  Forearm rotates medially so palm faces posteriorly

35 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements Figure 6.13g

36 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements  Opposition  Move thumb to touch the tips of other fingers on the same hand

37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements Figure 6.13h

38 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements  Protraction- stick something out like jaw  Retraction- pull jaw back in  Elevation- move something up like close mouth  Depression- lower something like the mouth

39 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Joint Replacement  Total hip replacement most common orthopedic surgery done on older people

40 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Range of Motion  Used to determine degree of damage to an injured joint  Active- you move  Passive- Dr. moves  Goniometer used to measure range of motion  ROM greatest early in life

41 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Knee Joint  Largest, most complex, and most injured joint  Anterior cruciate ligament tear is common  Compared to hip, it is relatively unprotected and easily injured  Knee injury can be very crippling

42 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Arthroscopy  Imaging technique  Two small puncture wounds  One for tube with lens and small light  One with knife

43 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Inflammatory Conditions Associated with Joints  Bursitis—inflammation of a bursa usually caused by a blow or friction  Dislocation- frequent joint injury  Tendonitis—inflammation of tendon sheaths  Sprain- injury to ligaments around a joint  Strain- overstretching of a muscle

44 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Inflammatory Conditions Associated with Joints  Arthritis—inflammatory or degenerative diseases of joints  Over 100 different types  The most widespread crippling disease in the United States

45 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Clinical Forms of Arthritis  Osteoarthritis  Most common chronic arthritis  Probably related to normal aging processes  Caused by deterioration of cartilage  Rheumatoid arthritis  An autoimmune disease—the immune system attacks the joints  Symptoms begin with bilateral inflammation of certain joints  Often leads to deformities  More common in women

46 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Clinical Forms of Arthritis  Gouty arthritis  Inflammation of joints is caused by a deposition of uric acid crystals from the blood  Can usually be controlled with diet  More common in men

47 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Developmental Aspects of the Skeletal System  At birth, the skull bones are incomplete  Bones are joined by fibrous membranes called fontanels  Fontanels are completely replaced with bone within two years after birth

48 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ossification Centers in a 12-week-old Fetus Figure 5.32

49 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skeletal Changes Throughout Life  Fetus  Long bones are formed of hyaline cartilage  Flat bones begin as fibrous membranes  Flat and long bone models are converted to bone  Birth  Fontanels remain until around age 2

50 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skeletal Changes Throughout Life  Adolescence  Epiphyseal plates become ossified and long bone growth ends  Size of cranium in relationship to body  2 years old—skull is larger in proportion to the body compared to that of an adult  8 or 9 years old—skull is near adult size and proportion  Between ages 6 and 11, the face grows out from the skull

51 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skeletal Changes Throughout Life Figure 5.33a

52 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skeletal Changes Throughout Life Figure 5.33b

53 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skeletal Changes Throughout Life  Osteoporosis  Bone-thinning disease afflicting  50% of women over age 65  20% of men over age 70  Disease makes bones fragile and bones can easily fracture  Vertebral collapse results in kyphosis (also known as dowager’s hump)  Estrogen aids in health and normal density of a female skeleton

54 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skeletal Changes Throughout Life Figure 5.34

55 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Advances in Bone Repair  Electrical stimulation of fracture sites  Bone tissue deposited in places of negative charge  Ultrasound- stimulates cartilage cells to make callus  Bone Grafting- Take part of bone from hip and put between two bones that have gap  Now using vascular fibular grafts

56 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Advances in Bone Repair  Bone substitutes  Ground cadavar bone  ProOsteon from coral  Ceramic bone substitutes


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