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The Skeletal System: Joints

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1 The Skeletal System: Joints

2 Joints Articulations of bones Functions of joints Hold bones together
Allow for mobility Ways joints are classified Functionally- by degree of movement Structurally- by type of connective tissue

3 Functional Classification of Joints
Synarthroses Immovable joints Amphiarthroses Slightly moveable joints Diarthroses Freely moveable joints

4 Structural Classification of Joints
Fibrous joints Generally immovable Cartilaginous joints Immovable or slightly moveable Synovial joints Freely moveable

5 Summary of Joint Classes
[Insert Table 5.3 here] Table 5.3

6 Fibrous Joints- Synarthroses or Immoveable
Bones united by fibrous tissue Example: Sutures Syndesmoses Ligaments attach two bones Allows more movement than sutures Example: Distal end of tibia and fibula Example: Distal end of radium and ulna

7 Fibrous Joints- Synarthroses or Immoveable
Gomphoses- joint created by alveolar processes to hold teeth in

8 Fibrous Joints Figure 5.28a–b

9 Cartilaginous Joints Bones connected by cartilage Example:
Symphysis joints- fibrocartilage Pubic symphysis Intervertebral joints Synchondroses- hyaline cartilage Connect ribs to sternum

10 Cartilaginous Joints Figure 5.28c–e

11 Synovial Joints Most moveable, most numerous, and most complex
Articulating bones are separated by a joint cavity Synovial fluid is found in the joint cavity

12 Synovial Joints Figure 5.28f–h

13 Features of Synovial Joints
Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) covers the ends of bones A fibrous articular capsule encloses joint surfaces A joint cavity is filled with synovial fluid Synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid Ligaments reinforce the joint

14 Structures Associated with the Synovial Joint
Bursae—flattened fibrous sacs Lined with synovial membranes Filled with synovial fluid Not actually part of the joint Tendon sheath Elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon

15 Synovial Knee Joint

16 The Synovial Joint Figure 5.29

17 Types of Synovial Joints
Nonaxial Gliding does not involve rotation around axis Plane joint – intercarpal joints of wrist Uniaxial Permit movement on one plane Hinge Joint like jaw, knee, elbow Pivot Joint- 1st and 2nd vertebrae

18 Types of Synovial Joints
Figure 5.30a–c

19 Types of Synovial Joints
Biaxial Permit movements in two planes Saddle joint of thumb Condyloid or ellipsoidal Condyloid on bone fits into ellipsoidal socket like radius and carpal bones Multiaxial Movement in three or more planes Ball and socket joints like hip and shoulder

20 Types of Synovial Joints
Figure 5.30d–f

21 Types of Ordinary Body Movements
Flexion Decreases the angle of the joint Brings two bones closer together Typical of hinge joints like knee and elbow Extension Opposite of flexion Increases angle between two bones Hyperextension Stretching beyond anatomical position

22 Types of Ordinary Body Movements
Figure 6.13a

23 Types of Ordinary Body Movements
Figure 6.13b

24 Types of Ordinary Body Movements
Abduction Movement of a limb away from the midline Adduction Opposite of abduction Movement of a limb toward the midline

25 Types of Ordinary Body Movements
Figure 6.13d

26 Types of Ordinary Body Movements
Rotation Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis Common in ball-and-socket joints Example is when you move atlas around the dens of axis (shake your head “no”)

27 Types of Ordinary Body Movements
Figure 6.13c

28 Types of Ordinary Body Movements
Circumduction Combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction Common in ball-and-socket joints

29 Types of Ordinary Body Movements
Figure 6.13d

30 Special Movements Dorsiflexion
Lifting the foot so that the superior surface approaches the shin Plantar flexion Depressing the foot (pointing the toes)

31 Special Movements Figure 6.13e

32 Special Movements Inversion Turn sole of foot medially Eversion
Turn sole of foot laterally

33 Special Movements Figure 6.13f

34 Special Movements Supination
Forearm rotates laterally so palm faces anteriorly Pronation Forearm rotates medially so palm faces posteriorly

35 Special Movements Figure 6.13g

36 Special Movements Opposition
Move thumb to touch the tips of other fingers on the same hand

37 Special Movements Figure 6.13h

38 Special Movements Protraction- stick something out like jaw
Retraction- pull jaw back in Elevation- move something up like close mouth Depression- lower something like the mouth

39 Joint Replacement Total hip replacement most common orthopedic surgery done on older people

40 Range of Motion Used to determine degree of damage to an injured joint Active- you move Passive- Dr. moves Goniometer used to measure range of motion ROM greatest early in life

41 Knee Joint Largest, most complex, and most injured joint
Anterior cruciate ligament tear is common Compared to hip, it is relatively unprotected and easily injured Knee injury can be very crippling

42 Two small puncture wounds
Arthroscopy Imaging technique Two small puncture wounds One for tube with lens and small light One with knife

43 Inflammatory Conditions Associated with Joints
Bursitis—inflammation of a bursa usually caused by a blow or friction Dislocation- frequent joint injury Tendonitis—inflammation of tendon sheaths Sprain- injury to ligaments around a joint Strain- overstretching of a muscle

44 Inflammatory Conditions Associated with Joints
Arthritis—inflammatory or degenerative diseases of joints Over 100 different types The most widespread crippling disease in the United States

45 Clinical Forms of Arthritis
Osteoarthritis Most common chronic arthritis Probably related to normal aging processes Caused by deterioration of cartilage Rheumatoid arthritis An autoimmune disease—the immune system attacks the joints Symptoms begin with bilateral inflammation of certain joints Often leads to deformities More common in women

46 Clinical Forms of Arthritis
Gouty arthritis Inflammation of joints is caused by a deposition of uric acid crystals from the blood Can usually be controlled with diet More common in men

47 Developmental Aspects of the Skeletal System
At birth, the skull bones are incomplete Bones are joined by fibrous membranes called fontanels Fontanels are completely replaced with bone within two years after birth

48 Ossification Centers in a 12-week-old Fetus
Figure 5.32

49 Skeletal Changes Throughout Life
Fetus Long bones are formed of hyaline cartilage Flat bones begin as fibrous membranes Flat and long bone models are converted to bone Birth Fontanels remain until around age 2

50 Skeletal Changes Throughout Life
Adolescence Epiphyseal plates become ossified and long bone growth ends Size of cranium in relationship to body 2 years old—skull is larger in proportion to the body compared to that of an adult 8 or 9 years old—skull is near adult size and proportion Between ages 6 and 11, the face grows out from the skull

51 Skeletal Changes Throughout Life
Figure 5.33a

52 Skeletal Changes Throughout Life
Figure 5.33b

53 Skeletal Changes Throughout Life
Osteoporosis Bone-thinning disease afflicting 50% of women over age 65 20% of men over age 70 Disease makes bones fragile and bones can easily fracture Vertebral collapse results in kyphosis (also known as dowager’s hump) Estrogen aids in health and normal density of a female skeleton

54 Skeletal Changes Throughout Life
Figure 5.34

55 Advances in Bone Repair
Electrical stimulation of fracture sites Bone tissue deposited in places of negative charge Ultrasound- stimulates cartilage cells to make callus Bone Grafting- Take part of bone from hip and put between two bones that have gap Now using vascular fibular grafts

56 Advances in Bone Repair
Bone substitutes Ground cadavar bone ProOsteon from coral Ceramic bone substitutes

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