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Chapter 5 The Skeletal System Provides an internal framework for the body, protects organs by enclosure, and anchors skeletal muscles so that muscle contractions.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 The Skeletal System Provides an internal framework for the body, protects organs by enclosure, and anchors skeletal muscles so that muscle contractions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 The Skeletal System Provides an internal framework for the body, protects organs by enclosure, and anchors skeletal muscles so that muscle contractions can cause movement

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3 Types of Bone Cells  Osteocytes  Mature bone cells  Osteoblasts  Bone-forming cells  Osteoclasts  Bone-destroying cells  Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium  Bone remodeling is a process performed by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts

4 Changes in the Human Skeleton  In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage  During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone  Cartilage remains in isolated areas  Bridge of the nose  Parts of ribs  Joints

5 Bone Growth  Epiphyseal plates allow for growth of long bones during childhood  New cartilage is continuously formed  Older cartilage becomes ossified  Cartilage is broken down  Bone replaces cartilage

6 Long Bone Formation & Growth

7 Bone Remodeling  Bones are remodeled continually in response to changes in 2 factors  Calcium levels in the blood  Pull of gravity & muscles on the skeleton

8 Softening & weakening of bones in children Softening & weakening of bones in children Due extreme & prolonged vitamin D deficiency Due extreme & prolonged vitamin D deficiency Vitamin D is essential in promoting absorption of calcium & phosphorus from the GI tract  Required to build strong bones Vitamin D is essential in promoting absorption of calcium & phosphorus from the GI tract  Required to build strong bones Adding vitamin D and calcium to the diet  Corrects any resulting bone problems Adding vitamin D and calcium to the diet  Corrects any resulting bone problems Some skeletal deformities  Surgery Some skeletal deformities  Surgery Symptoms Symptoms Skeletal deformities Skeletal deformities Bowed legs, spine curvature, pelvic deformities, breast bone projection Bowed legs, spine curvature, pelvic deformities, breast bone projection Fragile bones, impaired growth in height, dental problems, bone pain, muscle weakness Fragile bones, impaired growth in height, dental problems, bone pain, muscle weakness

9 Disease of the bones: Thin, brittle bones with lots of holes Bones are susceptible to fractures Especially, the hips, spine, & wrists Usually strikes after age 60 Symptoms: Broken bone after a fall Back pain Decreased height Curved backbone Cause: Lack of bone strength or bone density

10 Risk Factors: Age Female gender Menopause After menopause  Reduced production of estrogen, which protects the body from bone loss Family history – Genetics Slender body frame Race  European; Asian Smoking Lack of weight-bearing exercise Alcohol Lack of calcium & vitamin D in the diet Osteoporosis Slideshow

11 Treatment: Medication Fosamax: Reduces bone loss & build bone thickness Calcium & Vitamin D supplements Diet Eat dark green vegetables, yogurt, milk  Calcium Eat eggs, fatty fish, fortified cereal  Vitamin D Exercise  Weight bearing

12 Bone Fractures  A break in a bone  Types of bone fractures  Closed (simple) fracture – break that does not penetrate the skin  Open (compound) fracture – broken bone penetrates through the skin  Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization  Realignment of the bone

13 Common Types of Fractures * Know Table 5.2 page 137

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15 Repair of Bone Fractures 1.Hematoma (blood-filled swelling) is formed 2.Break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a callus 3.Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callus 4.Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch

16 Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture * KNOW Figure 5.5 page 138

17 Joints  Articulations of bones  Functions of joints  Hold bones together  Allow for mobility  Joints are classified in 2 ways  Functionally  Structurally

18 Functional Classification of Joints Focuses on the amount of movement allowed by the joint  Synarthroses – Immovable joints  Amphiarthroses – Slightly moveable joints Immovable & slightly movable joints  Restricted to the axial skeleton  Firm attachments & protection of internal organs  Diarthroses – Freely moveable joints  Predominantly in the limbs

19 Structural Classification of Joints  Fibrous joints  Generally immovable  Cartilaginous joints  Immovable or slightly moveable  Synovial joints  Freely moveable

20 Fibrous Joints  Bones united by fibrous tissue  Ex. Sutures of the skull  Synarthroses (largely immovable)

21 Cartilaginous Joints  Bone ends are connected by cartilage  Examples  Amphiarthrotic- Slightly movable  Pubic symphysis  Intervertebral joints  Synarthrotic  Immovable  True ribs & sternum

22 Synovial Joints  Articulating bones are separated by a joint cavity  Synovial fluid is found in the joint cavity

23 Features of Synovial Joints- Diarthroses  Articular (hyaline) cartilage) covers the ends of bones  Joint surfaces are enclosed by a fibrous articular capsule  Have a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid  Ligaments reinforce the joint

24 Structures Associated with the Synovial Joint  Bursae – flattened fibrous sacs  Lined with synovial membranes  Filled with synovial fluid  Not actually part of the joint  Common where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together  Tendon sheath  Elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon subject to friction

25 The Synovial Joint

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27 Types of Synovial Joints: Based on Shape

28 Types of Synovial Joints: Based on Shape

29 Inflammatory Conditions Associated with Joints  Bursitis – inflammation of a bursa usually caused by a blow or friction  Tendonitis – inflammation of tendon sheaths  Arthritis – inflammatory or degenerative diseases of joints  Over 100 different types  The most widespread crippling disease in the United States

30 Clinical Forms of Arthritis  Osteoarthritis  Most common form of chronic arthritis  Chronic degenerative condition  Probably related to the normal aging processes  “Wear-and-tear arthritis”  Affects the articular cartilages  Most commonly affected joints  Fingers, cervical & lumbar regions of the spine  Large weight-bearing joints of the lower limbs (knees & hips)  Progression = slow & irreversible, but rarely crippling

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32 Clinical Forms of Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis  Chronic inflammatory disorder  Autoimmune disease- Disorder in which the body’s immune system attempts to destroy its own tissues  Initial trigger = unknown  Usually occurs between the ages of 40 and 50 but it may occur at any age  Affects 3 times as many women as men  Joints of the fingers, wrists, ankles, and feet are affected at the same time and usually in a symmetrical manner  Often leads to deformities

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34 Clinical Forms of Arthritis Gouty Arthritis “Gout”  Disease in which uric acid accumulates in the blood and may be deposited as needle-shaped crystals in the soft tissues of joints  Agonizing painful attack- typically affects the great toe  Most common in males

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45 For me the connection is fairly obvious when viewing radiological images of people with atlas subluxations it becomes patently obvious that the jaw mandible and hence the TMJ are out of alignment. The crooked or tilted head (X-ray opposite) sitting atop the cervical spine results in non-alignment or disarticulation of the TMJ in the cranial fossa (recess). The joints do not work properly, with the disc being captured during opening and/or closing, and the neck and shoulder muscles going into painful spasm during the normal process of eating. For me the connection is fairly obvious when viewing radiological images of people with atlas subluxations it becomes patently obvious that the jaw mandible and hence the TMJ are out of alignment. The crooked or tilted head (X-ray opposite) sitting atop the cervical spine results in non-alignment or disarticulation of the TMJ in the cranial fossa (recess). The joints do not work properly, with the disc being captured during opening and/or closing, and the neck and shoulder muscles going into painful spasm during the normal process of eating.


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