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Highlights Introduction Osteology

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1 Highlights Introduction Osteology
Anatomical position, terms of direction, and planes. Osteology Structure and classification of bones. Formation of the bones of trunk. The common characteristic of the vertebrae. The main characteristic of different vertebrae. Formation and characteristic of ribs. Subsection of the sternum. Definition of sternal angle and costal arch.

2 The primary structure of the scapula, humerus, radius and ulna.
Name of the bones of hand. The primary structure of the hip bone, femur, tibia and fibula. Name of the bones of foot. The primary structure of the internal and external surface of the base of skull. The main structure of the superior, the posterior aspect and the lateral view of skull. The structure of orbit and bony nasal cavity. Names, position and opens of the paranasal sinuses.

3 Classification Chapter 2 Arthology Section 1 General description
Joints (Articulations):The bones are connected by means of fibrous connective tissue, cartilaginous or osseous tissues at different parts of their surfaces,and such a connection are termed. Classification There are two main types of articulations or joint. Solid joints - Continuous joints Synovial joints - Discontinuous joints

4 Solid joints Fibrous joints : bones are
united by fibrous connective tissue Syndesmoses:ligament and membrane Suture Cartilaginous joints : bones are united by cartilage Synchondroses : bones are united by hyaline cartilage: epiphyseal cartilage temporarily Symphysis : bones are united by fibrocartilage: intervertebral disc

5 Synovial joints - Discontinuous joints
Basic structures Articular surface: covered by articular cartilage Articular capsule Fibrous membrane Synovial membrane Articular cavity: containing a trace of synovial fluid; subatmospheric pressure in it

6 Accessory structures Ligaments (lig.): extra-and intracapsular ligaments Articular disc and articular labrum: Synovial fold and Synovial bursa

7 Terms for main movements of joints
Flexion and extension Adduction and abduction Rotation Medial and lateral rotation Pronation and supination Inversion and eversion Circumduction

8 Flexion - extension dorsiflexion plantar flexion

9 Adduction- abduction

10 Rotation Circumduction supination pronation

11 Classification of synovial joints on movement and shape
Uniaxial joints: hinge joints trochoid (pivot) joints Biaxial joints: ellipsoid joints saddle joints Multiaxial joints: ball-and-socket joint plane joints

12 Section 2 Joints of Bones of Trunk
Includes joints of the vertebral column and thoracic cage. The vertebral column consists of 24 vertebrae, the sacrum, and the coccyx. The joints of the vertebral column includes the joints of the vertebral bodies and the joints of vertebral arches.

13 1. Joints of the vertebral bodies
Joints of the vertebral column 1. Joints of the vertebral bodies Intervertebral discs between bodies of adjacent vertebrae, composed of: Nucleus pulposus, an inner soft, pulpy, highly elastic structure (gelatinous core ) Annulus fibrosus an outer fibrous ring consisting of fibrocartilage

14 Herniation of nucleus pulposus

15 Anterior longitudinal ligament
Strong band covering the anterior part of the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs running from the anterior margin of foramen magnum to the S1~S2 Maintains stability of the intervertebral disc and prevents hyperextension of the vertebral column Posterior longitudinal ligament Attached to the posterior aspect of the intervertebral discs and posterior edges of the vertebral bodies from C2 vertebra to sacrum Prevents hyperflexion of the vertebral column and posterior protrusion of the discs

16 2. Joints of the vertebral arches
Ligamenta flava ― elastic ligament, unite laminae of adjacent vertebrae, and complete the posterior wall of vertebral canal; tend to prevent hyperflexion of the vertebral column Interspinous ligament Supraspinous ligament:superiorly with the ligamentum nuchae(C7-external occipital bone Zygapophysial joints

17 3. Atlantooccipital joint
Between superior articulating surfaces of atlas and occipital condyles Supported by membrances and ligaments that join occipital bone and atlas Action ― nodding of head, lateral tilting of head

18 4. Atlantoaxial joint Three synovial joints between atlas and axis
Laterally, paired joints between articulating facets Median joint between dens of axis and anterior arch of atlas Supported by ligaments Action ― allow atlas (and head) to pivot on the axis and vertebral column

19 Zygapophysial joints Annulus fibrosus Intervertebral disc Nucleus pulposus

20 Anterior longitudinal ligament
posterior longitudinal ligament

21 Supraspinal ligaments
Ligaments flavum ( yellow ligaments) Interspinal ligaments

22 Ligamentum nuchae

23 5. The vertebral column as a whole and its movement
Cervical curvature Cervical vertebrae Thoracic curvature Thoracic vertebrae Lumbar curvature Lumbar vertebrae sacrum Sacral curvature coccyx The anterior aspect The lateral aspect

24 Normal Curves of vertebral column
Cervical curvature convex forward Thoracic curvature convex backward Lumbar curvature convex forward Sacral curvature convex backward

25 Vertebral column movement
flexion extension lateral flexion rotation

26 Joints of the thoracic cage
Composition Bones ― consists of twelve thoracic vertebrae, twelve pairs of ribs and costal cartilages, and sternum

27 1. Joints Costovertebral joints Sternocostal joints
Joints with head of rib Costotransverse joints Sternocostal joints Sternocostal synchondrosis of first rib Sternocostal joints: Interchondral joints: between costal cartilages7,8,9, and 10 to form the costal arch

28 Costovertebral joints
Costotransverse joints Joints with head of rib

29 2. General features of thorax
Roughly cone-shape, narrow above and broad below, flattened from before-backwards, longer behind than in front Superior thoracic aperture: bounded by upper border of manubrium, first rib, and vertebra T1 Inferior thoracic aperture: bounded by vertebra T12, 12th and 11th ribs, costal arch and xiphoid process Infrasternal angle: formed by the costal arch of both side Intercostal spaces: lie between the ribs

30 3. Functions of thorax protects the vital organs in the thoracic cavity and upper abdominal cavity; plays a vital role in the process of breathing Inspiration Expiration

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