Presentation on theme: "Highlights Introduction Osteology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Highlights Introduction Osteology Anatomical position, terms of direction, and planes.OsteologyStructure and classification of bones.Formation of the bones of trunk.The common characteristic of the vertebrae.The main characteristic of different vertebrae.Formation and characteristic of ribs.Subsection of the sternum.Definition of sternal angle and costal arch.
2 The primary structure of the scapula, humerus, radius and ulna. Name of the bones of hand.The primary structure of the hip bone, femur, tibia and fibula.Name of the bones of foot.The primary structure of the internal and external surface of the base of skull.The main structure of the superior, the posterior aspect and the lateral view of skull.The structure of orbit and bony nasal cavity. Names, position and opens of the paranasal sinuses.
3 Classification Chapter 2 Arthology Section 1 General description Joints (Articulations):The bones are connected by means of fibrous connective tissue, cartilaginous or osseous tissues at different parts of their surfaces,and such a connection are termed.ClassificationThere are two main types of articulations or joint.Solid joints - Continuous jointsSynovial joints - Discontinuous joints
4 Solid joints Fibrous joints : bones are united by fibrous connective tissueSyndesmoses:ligament and membraneSutureCartilaginous joints :bones are united by cartilageSynchondroses :bones are united by hyaline cartilage:epiphyseal cartilage temporarilySymphysis :bones are united by fibrocartilage:intervertebral disc
5 Synovial joints － Discontinuous joints Basic structuresArticular surface: covered by articular cartilageArticular capsuleFibrous membraneSynovial membraneArticular cavity: containing a trace of synovial fluid; subatmospheric pressure in it
6 Accessory structuresLigaments (lig.): extra-and intracapsular ligamentsArticular disc and articular labrum:Synovial fold and Synovial bursa
7 Terms for main movements of joints Flexion and extensionAdduction and abductionRotation Medial and lateral rotationPronation and supinationInversion and eversionCircumduction
11 Classification of synovial joints on movement and shape Uniaxial joints:hinge jointstrochoid (pivot) jointsBiaxial joints:ellipsoid jointssaddle jointsMultiaxial joints:ball-and-socket jointplane joints
12 Section 2 Joints of Bones of Trunk Includes joints of the vertebral column and thoracic cage.The vertebral column consists of 24 vertebrae, the sacrum, and the coccyx.The joints of the vertebral column includes the joints of the vertebral bodies and the joints of vertebral arches.
13 1. Joints of the vertebral bodies Joints of the vertebral column1. Joints of the vertebral bodiesIntervertebral discsbetween bodies of adjacent vertebrae, composed of:Nucleus pulposus, an inner soft, pulpy, highly elastic structure (gelatinous core )Annulus fibrosusan outer fibrous ring consisting of fibrocartilage
15 Anterior longitudinal ligament Strong band covering the anterior part of the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs running from the anterior margin of foramen magnum to the S1~S2Maintains stability of the intervertebral disc and prevents hyperextension of the vertebral columnPosterior longitudinal ligamentAttached to the posterior aspect of the intervertebral discs and posterior edges of the vertebral bodies from C2 vertebra to sacrumPrevents hyperflexion of the vertebral column and posterior protrusion of the discs
16 2. Joints of the vertebral arches Ligamenta flava ― elastic ligament, unite laminae of adjacent vertebrae, and complete the posterior wall of vertebral canal; tend to prevent hyperflexion of the vertebral columnInterspinous ligamentSupraspinous ligament:superiorly with the ligamentum nuchae(C7-external occipital boneZygapophysial joints
17 3. Atlantooccipital joint Between superior articulating surfaces of atlas and occipital condylesSupported by membrances and ligaments that join occipital bone and atlasAction ― nodding of head, lateral tilting of head
18 4. Atlantoaxial joint Three synovial joints between atlas and axis Laterally, paired joints between articulating facetsMedian joint between dens of axis and anterior arch of atlasSupported by ligamentsAction ― allow atlas (and head) to pivot on the axis and vertebral column
23 5. The vertebral column as a whole and its movement Cervical curvatureCervical vertebraeThoracic curvatureThoracic vertebraeLumbar curvatureLumbar vertebraesacrumSacral curvaturecoccyxThe anterior aspectThe lateral aspect
24 Normal Curves of vertebral column Cervical curvature convex forwardThoracic curvature convex backwardLumbar curvature convex forwardSacral curvature convex backward
25 Vertebral column movement flexionextensionlateral flexionrotation
26 Joints of the thoracic cage CompositionBones ― consists of twelve thoracic vertebrae, twelve pairs of ribs and costal cartilages, and sternum
27 1. Joints Costovertebral joints Sternocostal joints Joints with head of ribCostotransverse jointsSternocostal jointsSternocostal synchondrosis of first ribSternocostal joints:Interchondral joints: between costal cartilages7,8,9, and 10 to form the costal arch
28 Costovertebral joints Costotransverse jointsJoints with head of rib
29 2. General features of thorax Roughly cone-shape, narrow above and broad below, flattened from before-backwards, longer behind than in frontSuperior thoracic aperture: bounded by upper border of manubrium, first rib, and vertebra T1Inferior thoracic aperture: bounded by vertebra T12, 12th and 11th ribs, costal arch and xiphoid processInfrasternal angle: formed by the costal arch of both sideIntercostal spaces: lie between the ribs
30 3. Functions of thoraxprotects the vital organs in the thoracic cavity and upper abdominal cavity;plays a vital role in the process of breathingInspirationExpiration