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Chapter 6 Roots Plant organ systems. What are the primary functions of roots?

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Roots Plant organ systems. What are the primary functions of roots?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6 Roots Plant organ systems

2 What are the primary functions of roots?

3 Fibrous and taproot systems



6 DicotsMonocots

7 Root structure

8 Root cap  Parenchyma  Mucigel  Perception of gravity

9 Dicot root, l.s.  Region of cell division  Region of elongation

10 Region of maturation


12 Mature root structure

13 Monocot root, c.s.

14 Dicot root, c.s.

15 Phloem Xylem Endodermis

16 Endodermis regulates mineral absorption



19 Lateral (branch) roots

20 EndodermisPericycle





25 Specialized roots  Storage roots

26 Propagative roots

27 Pneumatophores

28 Cypress pneumatophores, Black River, NC



31 A barrel cactus 2 feet tall and 1 foot in diameter has roots more than 10 feet long. However, all of the roots are found in the soil no deeper than 6 inches. Why would a plant in such a dry climate have such shallow roots?

32 Aerial roots

33 Aerial roots (poison ivy)

34 Aerial roots  Velamen (orchids)

35 Aerial roots – velamen (orchids)

36 Aerial roots?

37 Contractile roots

38 Buttress roots


40 Prop roots


42 Prop roots – Mangrove swamp

43 Mycorrhizae  A mutualistic fungal association with roots


45 Mycorrhizae

46 Root nodules



49 Nitrogen fixation research Ammonia diffusion hypothesis of nitrogen transport into plants

50 Group activity  If N is supplied as alanine, what does this imply the plant is able to do?  As a scientist, what would you look for in a plant that would support the hypothesis that N is supplied as alanine?

51 Parasitic roots  Witchweed

52 Parasitic roots  Oscula of witchweed (Striga sp.)

53 Human uses of roots

54 yams sweet potatoes cassava

55 Rosemary's Root Beer Tonic Ingredients (4 servings) 3 oz Sassafras Bark, dried 2 oz Sarsaparilla root, dried 1 oz Dandelion Root, dried 1 oz Burdock Root, dried 1/2 oz Ground Ginger root 1/2 oz Ground Cinnamon 1/4 oz Orange Peel, dried Mix together all ingredients and store in a tightly closed container. In a large pot combine 1 quart of water and 4 tablespoons of dry mixture. Bring to a boil, cover and simmer for 15 to 20 minutes. Strain and sweeten with honey or stevia (also called "sweet herb") if desired. Source: Vegetarian Times, April 1993 link

56 Herbal medications Ginger

57 Valerian extract, derived from the dried rhizomes and roots of the plant, has been used for thousands of years as a folk remedy, tranquilizer and calmative for several disorders such as restlessness, nervousness, insomnia, hysteria, menstrual problems, and as a sedative for "nervous" stomach. Valerian extracts are currently used in scores of compounds and teas in Europe. Valeriana officinalis

58 Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra)Glycyrrhiza glabra

59 Rotenone comes from Derris root and Lonchocarpus species leaf (Family: Leguminosae) It is an insecticide and also used as a fish poison. Rotenone disrupts cellular respiration and death is relatively slow compared to most nerve toxins. Rotenone is extremely toxic to fish and is used as a fish poison by South American Indians and in water management programs.

60 Roots & erosion 

61 Root research  CO 2 concentration and root growth CO 2 concentration and root growth  Phytoremediation and molecular farming Phytoremediation and molecular farming –Mercury detoxificationMercury detoxification –TNT detoxificationTNT detoxification  Root cap function Root cap function

62 Root nematodes


64 -disrupts the uptake of nutrients and water -interferes with plant growth -vector for viruses Root nematodes

65 Root nematode damage


67 Root nematodes reduce crop productivity

68 Root nematode research  Plant nematology at Cornell Plant nematology at Cornell  Baum lab – Iowa State Baum lab – Iowa State  Eric Davis - NCSU Eric Davis - NCSU

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