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Skeletal System Emily Davis Marina Tome Sam Watkins.

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2 Skeletal System Emily Davis Marina Tome Sam Watkins

3 Introduction Objective : Students will be able to identify the function and structures of the skeletal system. Distinguish between bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage. Describe the development of bones from cartilage and identify the difference between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Describe the classification of joints by tissue and know the six types of synovial joints and their types of movement. Distinguish between the appendicular and axial skeletons. Finally, identify 23 major bones of the human body and their functions.

4 Function Five functions of the Skeletal System: –1) Provide points of attachments for muscles –2) Protect and support softer underlying tissues –3) House blood producing cells –4) Store inorganic salts –5) Contain passage ways for blood vessels and nerves SUPPORT

5 Bones, Ligaments, Tendons, and Cartilage Bones Ligaments (Binds bones to joints) Tendons (Attaches muscle to bone) Cartilage Tissue Type Connective Unique Characteristics Extracellular matrix Bone matrix Haversian Canals Sheet-like cords Collagenous Fibers White fibrous connective tissue 3 types Collagenous fibers Rigid

6 Long Bone

7 Bone Cells osteoBlasts osteoClasts Build Bone Crush Bone

8 Bone Development Diagram

9 Intramembranous Flat Layers of connective tissue Enlarge into osteoBlasts Deposit boney matrix Spongy bone forms Periosteum Compact bone

10 Joints by Tissue FibrousCartilaginousSynovial  Found between joints of bones  Immovable  Dense connective tissue  Ex: Skull  Connect through hyaline or fibrocartilage  Limited Movement  Ex: Between Vertebrae  Capsules of ligaments  Synovial membranes and fluid  Covered by hyaline cartilage  Six different types  Ex: Elbow

11 Synovial Joints

12 Ball and Socket Two bones, one ball shaped and the other cup shaped, fit into one another  Movements in all planes and rotation  Ex: Shoulder and hip Ball Socket

13 Condyloid  Curve of one bone articulates with another bone  Variety of movement in different planes, but no rotation  Ex: Joints between metacarpals and phalanges

14 Gliding  Articulating surfaces are nearly flat or slightly curved  Sliding or twisting  Ex: Joints between various bones of wrists and ankles, sacroiliac

15 Hinge  Two surfaces, one convex and the other concave, articulate with each other  Flexion and extension  Ex: Elbow and joints of phalanges

16 Pivot Cylindrical surface of one bone fits into the rings of another bone  Rotation around a central axis  Ex: Axis of neck

17 Saddle Concave and convex surfaces fit with one another  Variety of movements  Ex: Joints between the carpal and the metacarpals of the thumb

18 Joint Movement Flexion Extension Dorsiflexion Plantar Flexion Hyperextension Abduction Adduction Rotation Circumduction

19 Skeletons AppendicularAxial

20 23 Major Bones of the Human Body

21 Skull

22 Vertebral Column

23 Pectoral Girdle

24 Thoracic Cage Sternum True Ribs False Ribs Floating Ribs

25 Pelvic Girdle

26 Upper Limb

27 Lower Limb

28 Bone Diseases Osteoporosis Cancer Paget’s Disease

29 Questions?

30 Quick Review How many bones are there in the human body? –206 bones What are the two types of bone cells and what does each do? osteoBlasts -  Build BoneosteoClasts -  Crush Bone What are the three types of vertebrae and how many are there of each? –Cervical (7) Thoracic (12) Lumbar (5) Name all functions of the skeletal system.

31 Thank You for your attention!!



34 Bibliography "AL's Labs: Skeleton - Joints.." Department of Zoology, UBC. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2013. "Axial Skeleton. Skull. Bones of the Cranium. Bones of the Face. Hyoid Bone." Human anatomy. Human body. Full Human Anatomy. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2013.. "Ball-and-socket joint. Causes, symptoms, treatment Ball-and-socket joint." Prescription Drug Information, Side Effects, Interactions. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2013.. "Chapter 6: Bones and Skeletal Tissues." Midlands Technical College. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. "Dancing-skeleton-clipart | The Nest." The Nest | A Yoga Studio. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Mar. 2013. . File:Illu pelvic girdle.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. "File:Pectoral girdle front diagram.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2013.

35 "Natural Cures | Natural Home Remedies." #1 Home Remedies, Natural Remedies Guide. Herbal Remedies & Natural Cure. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Mar. 2013. "Neuroscience For Kids - The Skull." UW Faculty Web Server. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. "Osteogenesis imperfecta - types and treatment | Health Dictionary." Health Encyclopedia | N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2013.. "Osteoporosis - Southwest Florida Spine Institute." Southwest Florida Spine Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Mar. 2013.. "Shoulder, Arm and Elbow Problems|| Information for Patients about Orthopaedic Surgery." OrthoAnswer || Comprehensive Easy-to-understand information about Orthopaedic Surgery | Melbourne. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.. Shier, David, Jackie Butler, and Ricki Lewis. Hole's essentials of human anatomy and physiology. 9th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2006. Print "Spinal Anatomy | Vertebral Column." SpineUniverse | Expert Advice on Lower Back Pain, Neck Pain, Sciatica. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.. “Thoracic Cage." University Of Southern Indiana. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2013. "Tibia | These Bones Of Mine." These Bones Of Mine | Human Osteology & Archaeology amongst other things…. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2013. "Types of Joints." - physical education and coaching information site. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2013.

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