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Chapter 6 Tissues. Principal Types of Tissue Four types of tissues: I. Epithelial tissue II. Connective tissue III. Muscle tissue IV. Nervous tissue.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Tissues. Principal Types of Tissue Four types of tissues: I. Epithelial tissue II. Connective tissue III. Muscle tissue IV. Nervous tissue."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6 Tissues

2 Principal Types of Tissue Four types of tissues: I. Epithelial tissue II. Connective tissue III. Muscle tissue IV. Nervous tissue

3 Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Functions Functions Helps bind tissues together structurally Helps bind tissues together structurally Allows local communication among ECM and various cells — through connection via integrins in plasma membranes Allows local communication among ECM and various cells — through connection via integrins in plasma membranes

4 Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Components Components Water Water Proteins Proteins Structural proteins Structural proteins Collagen — strong, flexible protein fiber Collagen — strong, flexible protein fiber Elastin — elastic fibers Elastin — elastic fibers Includes glycoproteins — proteins with a few carbohydrate attachments Includes glycoproteins — proteins with a few carbohydrate attachments Glycoprotein attachments also allow local communication within a tissue Glycoprotein attachments also allow local communication within a tissue

5 I. Epithelial Tissue Functions Functions Protection Protection Sensory functions Sensory functions Secretion Secretion Absorption Absorption Excretion Excretion

6 I. Epithelial Tissue Types and locations Types and locations Epithelium is divided into two types: Epithelium is divided into two types: Membranous epithelium — covers the body and some of its parts; lines the serous cavities, blood and lymphatic vessels, and respiratory, digestive, and genitourinary tracts Membranous epithelium — covers the body and some of its parts; lines the serous cavities, blood and lymphatic vessels, and respiratory, digestive, and genitourinary tracts Glandular epithelium — secretory units of endocrine and exocrine glands Glandular epithelium — secretory units of endocrine and exocrine glands

7 I. Epithelial Tissue Classification of epithelial tissue Classification of epithelial tissue Classification based on cell shape Classification based on cell shape Squamous Squamous Cuboidal Cuboidal Columnar Columnar Pseudostratified columnar Pseudostratified columnar

8 I. Simple epithelium 1. Simple squamous epithelium One-cell layer of flat cells One-cell layer of flat cells Permeable to many substances Permeable to many substances Examples: endothelium — lines blood vessels; mesothelium — pleura Examples: endothelium — lines blood vessels; mesothelium — pleura

9 I. Simple epithelium 2. Simple cuboidal epithelium One-cell layer of cuboidal cells One-cell layer of cuboidal cells Found in many glands and ducts Found in many glands and ducts

10 I. Simple epithelium 3. Simple columnar epithelium Single layer of tall, column-shaped cells Single layer of tall, column-shaped cells Cells often modified for specialized functions — e.g., goblet cells (secretion), cilia (movement), microvilli (absorption) Cells often modified for specialized functions — e.g., goblet cells (secretion), cilia (movement), microvilli (absorption) Often lines hollow visceral structures Often lines hollow visceral structures

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12 I. Simple epithelium 4. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Columnar cells of differing heights Columnar cells of differing heights All cells rest on basement membrane but may not reach the free surface above All cells rest on basement membrane but may not reach the free surface above Cell nuclei at odd and irregular levels Cell nuclei at odd and irregular levels Found lining air passages and segments of male reproductive system Found lining air passages and segments of male reproductive system Motile cilia and mucus are important modifications Motile cilia and mucus are important modifications

13 I. Stratified epithelium 5. A. Stratified squamous (keratinized) epithelium Multiple layers of flat, squamous cells Multiple layers of flat, squamous cells Cells filled with keratin Cells filled with keratin Covers outer skin on body surface Covers outer skin on body surface

14 I. Stratified epithelium 5. B. Stratified squamous (nonkeratinized) epithelium Lines vagina, mouth, and esophagus Lines vagina, mouth, and esophagus Free surface is moist Free surface is moist Primary function is protection Primary function is protection

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17 I. Stratified epithelium 6. Stratified cuboidal epithelium Two or more rows of cells are typical Two or more rows of cells are typical Basement membrane is indistinct Basement membrane is indistinct Located in sweat gland ducts and pharynx Located in sweat gland ducts and pharynx

18 I. Stratified epithelium 7. Stratified columnar epithelium Multiple layers of columnar cells Multiple layers of columnar cells Only most superficial cells are typical in shape Only most superficial cells are typical in shape Rare Rare Located in segments of male urethra and near anus Located in segments of male urethra and near anus

19 I. Stratified epithelium 8. Stratified transitional epithelium Located in lining of hollow viscera subjected to stress (e.g., urinary bladder) Located in lining of hollow viscera subjected to stress (e.g., urinary bladder) Often 10 or more layers thick Often 10 or more layers thick Protects organ walls from tearing Protects organ walls from tearing

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21 Can you identify these? A B CD E F G

22 II. Connective Tissue Functions, characteristics, and types Functions, characteristics, and types General function — connects, supports, transports, and protects General function — connects, supports, transports, and protects General characteristics — extracellular matrix (ECM) predominates in most connective tissues and determines its physical characteristics; consists of fluid, gel, or solid matrix, with or without extracellular fibers (collagenous, reticular, and elastic) and proteoglycans or other compounds that thicken and hold together the tissue General characteristics — extracellular matrix (ECM) predominates in most connective tissues and determines its physical characteristics; consists of fluid, gel, or solid matrix, with or without extracellular fibers (collagenous, reticular, and elastic) and proteoglycans or other compounds that thicken and hold together the tissue

23 II. Connective Tissue Four main types: Four main types:1.Fibrous A. Loose, ordinary (areolar) B. Adipose C. Reticular D. Dense Irregular Irregular Regular (collagenous and elastic) Regular (collagenous and elastic) 2. Bone A. Compact bone B. Cancellous bone 3. Cartilage A. Hyaline B. Fibrocartilage C. Elastic 4. Blood

24 1. Fibrous connective tissue A. Loose, ordinary (areolar) connective tissue One of the most widely distributed of all tissues One of the most widely distributed of all tissues Intercellular substance is prominent and consists of collagenous and elastic fibers loosely interwoven and embedded in soft, viscous ground substance Intercellular substance is prominent and consists of collagenous and elastic fibers loosely interwoven and embedded in soft, viscous ground substance Function — stretchy, flexible connection

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26 1. Fibrous connective tissue B. Adipose tissue Similar to loose connective tissue but contains mainly fat cells Similar to loose connective tissue but contains mainly fat cells Functions — protection, insulation, support, and food reserve Functions — protection, insulation, support, and food reserve

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29 1. Fibrous connective tissue C. Reticular tissue Forms framework of spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow Forms framework of spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow Consists of network of branching reticular fibers with reticular cells overlying them Consists of network of branching reticular fibers with reticular cells overlying them Functions — defense against microorganisms and other injurious substances; reticular meshwork filters out injurious particles, and reticular cells phagocytose them Functions — defense against microorganisms and other injurious substances; reticular meshwork filters out injurious particles, and reticular cells phagocytose them

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31 1. Fibrous connective tissue D. Dense fibrous tissue Matrix consists mainly of fibers packed densely and relatively few fibroblast cells Matrix consists mainly of fibers packed densely and relatively few fibroblast cells Irregular — fibers intertwine irregularly to form a thick mat (Figure 5-20) Irregular — fibers intertwine irregularly to form a thick mat (Figure 5-20) Regular — bundles of fibers are arranged in regular, parallel rows Regular — bundles of fibers are arranged in regular, parallel rows Collagenous — mostly collagenous fibers in ECM (Figure 5-21 and 5-22) Collagenous — mostly collagenous fibers in ECM (Figure 5-21 and 5-22) Elastic — mostly elastic fibers in ECM (Figure 5-23) Elastic — mostly elastic fibers in ECM (Figure 5-23) Locations — composes structures that need great tensile strength, such as tendons and ligaments; also dermis and outer capsule of kidney and spleen Locations — composes structures that need great tensile strength, such as tendons and ligaments; also dermis and outer capsule of kidney and spleen Function — furnishes flexible connections that are strong or stretchy Function — furnishes flexible connections that are strong or stretchy

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34 2. Bone tissue Highly specialized connective tissue type Highly specialized connective tissue type Cells — osteocytes — embedded in a calcified matrix Cells — osteocytes — embedded in a calcified matrix Inorganic component of matrix accounts for 65% of total bone tissue Inorganic component of matrix accounts for 65% of total bone tissue Functions: Functions: Support Support Protection Protection Point of attachment for muscles Point of attachment for muscles Reservoir for minerals Reservoir for minerals Supports blood-forming tissue Supports blood-forming tissue

35 A. Compact bone Osteon (Haversian system) Osteon (Haversian system) Structural unity of bone Structural unity of bone Spaces for osteocytes called lacunae Spaces for osteocytes called lacunae Matrix present in concentric rings called lamellae Matrix present in concentric rings called lamellae Canaliculi are canals that join lacunae with the central Haversian canal Canaliculi are canals that join lacunae with the central Haversian canal Cell types: Cell types: Osteocyte — mature, inactive bone cell Osteocyte — mature, inactive bone cell Osteoblast — active, bone-forming cell Osteoblast — active, bone-forming cell Osteoclast — bone-destroying cell Osteoclast — bone-destroying cell Formation (ossification) Formation (ossification) In membranes — e.g., flat bones of skull In membranes — e.g., flat bones of skull From cartilage (endochondral) — e.g., long bones, such as the humerus From cartilage (endochondral) — e.g., long bones, such as the humerus

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39 B. Cancellous bone Trabeculae — thin beams of bone Trabeculae — thin beams of bone Supports red bone marrow Supports red bone marrow Myeloid tissue — a type of reticular tissue Myeloid tissue — a type of reticular tissue Produces blood cells Produces blood cells Called spongy bone because of its spongelike appearance Called spongy bone because of its spongelike appearance

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42 3. Cartilage Chondrocyte is only cell type present Chondrocyte is only cell type present Lacunae house cells, as in bone Lacunae house cells, as in bone Avascular — therefore, nutrition of cells depends on diffusion of nutrients through matrix Avascular — therefore, nutrition of cells depends on diffusion of nutrients through matrix Heals slowly after injury because of slow nutrient transfer to the cells Heals slowly after injury because of slow nutrient transfer to the cells Perichondrium is membrane that surrounds cartilage Perichondrium is membrane that surrounds cartilage

43 3. Types of Cartilage A. Hyaline Appearance is shiny and translucent Appearance is shiny and translucent Most prevalent type of cartilage Most prevalent type of cartilage Located on the ends of articulating bones Located on the ends of articulating bones B. Fibrocartilage Strongest and most durable type of cartilage Strongest and most durable type of cartilage Matrix is semirigid and filled with strong, white fibers Matrix is semirigid and filled with strong, white fibers Found in intervertebral disks and pubic symphysis Found in intervertebral disks and pubic symphysis Serves as shock-absorbing material between bones at the knee (menisci) Serves as shock-absorbing material between bones at the knee (menisci) C. Elastic Contains many fine, elastic fibers Contains many fine, elastic fibers Provides strength and flexibility Provides strength and flexibility Located in external ear and larynx Located in external ear and larynx

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47 4. Blood A liquid tissue A liquid tissue Contains neither ground substance nor fibers Contains neither ground substance nor fibers Composition of whole blood Composition of whole blood Liquid fraction (plasma) is the matrix — 55% of total blood volume Liquid fraction (plasma) is the matrix — 55% of total blood volume Formed elements contribute 45% of total blood volume Formed elements contribute 45% of total blood volume Red blood cells, erythrocytes Red blood cells, erythrocytes White blood cells, leukocytes White blood cells, leukocytes Platelets, thrombocytes Platelets, thrombocytes

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49 4. Blood (cont.) Functions Functions Transportation Transportation Regulation of body temperature Regulation of body temperature Regulation of body pH Regulation of body pH White blood cells destroy bacteria White blood cells destroy bacteria Circulating blood tissue is formed in the red bone marrow by a process called hematopoiesis; the blood- forming tissue is sometimes called hematopoietic tissue Circulating blood tissue is formed in the red bone marrow by a process called hematopoiesis; the blood- forming tissue is sometimes called hematopoietic tissue

50 III. Muscle Tissue Types (Table 5-7) Types (Table 5-7) 1. Skeletal, or striated voluntary (Figure 5-32) 2. Smooth, or nonstriated involuntary, or visceral (Figures 5-33 and 5-34) 3.Cardiac, or striated involuntary (Figure 5-35)

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57 III. Muscle Tissue Microscopic characteristics Microscopic characteristics 1. Skeletal muscle — threadlike cells with many cross striations and many nuclei per cell 2. Smooth muscle — elongated, narrow cells, no cross striations, one nucleus per cell 3. Cardiac muscle — branching cells with intercalated disks (formed by abutment of plasma membranes of two cells)

58 IV. Nervous Tissue Functions — rapid regulation and integration of body activities Functions — rapid regulation and integration of body activities Specialized characteristics Specialized characteristics Excitability Excitability Conductivity Conductivity Organs Organs Brain Brain Spinal cord Spinal cord Nerves Nerves

59 IV. Nervous Tissue Cell types Cell types Neuron — conducting unit of system Neuron — conducting unit of system Cell body, or soma Cell body, or soma Processes Processes Axon (single process) — transmits nerve impulse away from the cell body Axon (single process) — transmits nerve impulse away from the cell body Dendrites (one or more) — transmit nerve impulse toward the cell body and axon Dendrites (one or more) — transmit nerve impulse toward the cell body and axon Neuroglia — special connecting, supporting, coordinating cells that surround the neurons Neuroglia — special connecting, supporting, coordinating cells that surround the neurons

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61 IV. Tissue Repair Tissues have a varying capacity to repair themselves; damaged tissue regenerates or is replaced by scar tissue Tissues have a varying capacity to repair themselves; damaged tissue regenerates or is replaced by scar tissue Regeneration — growth of new tissue Regeneration — growth of new tissue Scar — dense fibrous mass; unusually thick scar is a keloid Scar — dense fibrous mass; unusually thick scar is a keloid Epithelial and connective tissues have the greatest ability to regenerate Epithelial and connective tissues have the greatest ability to regenerate Muscle and nervous tissues have a limited capacity to regenerate Muscle and nervous tissues have a limited capacity to regenerate

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64 Body Membranes Thin tissue layers that cover surfaces, line cavities, and divide spaces or organs (Figure 6-39, Table 6-8) Thin tissue layers that cover surfaces, line cavities, and divide spaces or organs (Figure 6-39, Table 6-8) Epithelial membranes are most common type (Figure 6-40) Epithelial membranes are most common type (Figure 6-40)  Cutaneous membrane (skin) Primary organ of integumentary system Primary organ of integumentary system One of the most important organs One of the most important organs Composes approximately 16% of body weight Composes approximately 16% of body weight 64

65 Body Membranes Epithelial membranes (cont) Epithelial membranes (cont)  Serous membrane (serosa) Parietal membranes—line closed body cavities Parietal membranes—line closed body cavities Visceral membranes—cover visceral organs Visceral membranes—cover visceral organs Pleura—surrounds a lung and lines the thoracic cavity Pleura—surrounds a lung and lines the thoracic cavity Peritoneum—covers the abdominal viscera and lines the abdominal cavity Peritoneum—covers the abdominal viscera and lines the abdominal cavity 65

66 Body Membranes Epithelial membranes (cont) Epithelial membranes (cont)  Mucous membrane (mucosa) Lines and protects organs that open to the exterior of the body Lines and protects organs that open to the exterior of the body Found lining ducts and passageways of the respiratory, digestive, and other tracts Found lining ducts and passageways of the respiratory, digestive, and other tracts Lamina propria—fibrous connective tissue underlying mucous epithelium Lamina propria—fibrous connective tissue underlying mucous epithelium Mucus is made up mostly of water and mucins—proteoglycans that form a double- layer of protection against environmental microbes (Figure 6-41) Mucus is made up mostly of water and mucins—proteoglycans that form a double- layer of protection against environmental microbes (Figure 6-41) 66

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68 The Big Picture: Tissues, Membranes, and the Whole Body Tissues and membranes maintain homeostasis Tissues and membranes maintain homeostasis  Epithelial tissues Form membranes that contain and protect the internal fluid environment Form membranes that contain and protect the internal fluid environment Absorb nutrients Absorb nutrients Secrete products that regulate functions involved in homeostasis Secrete products that regulate functions involved in homeostasis  Connective tissues Hold organs and systems together Hold organs and systems together Form structures that support the body and permit movement Form structures that support the body and permit movement 68

69 The Big Picture: Tissues, Membranes, and the Whole Body Tissues and membranes maintain homeostasis Tissues and membranes maintain homeostasis  Epithelial tissues Form membranes that contain and protect the internal fluid environment Form membranes that contain and protect the internal fluid environment Absorb nutrients Absorb nutrients Secrete products that regulate functions involved in homeostasis Secrete products that regulate functions involved in homeostasis  Connective tissues Hold organs and systems together Hold organs and systems together Form structures that support the body and permit movement Form structures that support the body and permit movement 69

70 The Big Picture: Tissues, Membranes, and the Whole Body Tissues and membranes maintain homeostasis (cont) Tissues and membranes maintain homeostasis (cont)  Muscle tissues Work with connective tissues to permit movement Work with connective tissues to permit movement  Nervous tissues Work with glandular epithelial tissues to regulate body function Work with glandular epithelial tissues to regulate body function 70


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