Presentation on theme: "Biochemistry Study of chemical composition and reactions occurring in living matter Inorganic Compounds Do not contain carbon Exceptions - CO2, CO, bicarbonates."— Presentation transcript:
1BiochemistryStudy of chemical composition and reactions occurring in living matterInorganic CompoundsDo not contain carbonExceptions - CO2, CO, bicarbonatesWater is the most abundant and important inorganic material, making up 60% - 80% of all cells and 2/3 of body weightIdentify the important facts regarding inorganic molecules.
2Organic Compounds Contain the element carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbon is found in things that are or once were living.Carbon atoms share electrons to form covalent bonds.Have students differentiate between organic and inorganic compounds.
3Organic CompoundsOrganic compounds are composed of hundreds to thousands of individual molecules.The single molecules in a polymer are called monomers.The images at the bottom are examples of monomers. Explain to the students that fructose is a simple sugar. The string of beads are also an example of monomers. As the beads are all the same in the string.
4Organic CompoundsThe long molecules formed by repeating patterns of monomers are called polymers.Compare the structure of the monomers to the polymers. Use the InterWrite tablet to identify the bonds for students.
5Functional GroupsA functional group is a group of atoms that characterize the structure of a family of organic compounds.Functional groups determine many of the properties of organic compounds.3 Types to Know: Amine (NH2), Carboxyl (COOH), Hydroxyl (OH).Use the interactive links to show the diagrams of each functional group.
6N-H2 Amine Group Functional Groups Use InterWrite tablet to a place circle around the functional group.Functional Groups
7COOH Carboxyl Group Functional Groups Identify the double bonds, in the carboxyl group.Functional Groups
8OH Hydroxyl Group Functional Groups Circle the hydroxyl group in the sugar molecule. Use the InterWrite tablets.Functional Groups
9Macromolecules4 Types of Organic Compounds or macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.Essential to maintaining life processes: cell function, storage, energy, homeostasis and genetic information.Students are to list all of the reasons why macromolecules are essential to life on their Cornell note sheet. Please allow time for this.
10Carbohydrates Make up sugars and starches Contain a hydroxyl (OH) groupContain atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.The ratio of the atoms is 1 C : 2 H : 1 OProvide energy to the cells.Dissolve in water (hydrophilic)Emphasize the importance of carbohydrates to living things.
11Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are classified accordingto size.One sugar is a monosaccharide (monomer).Two sugars make a disaccharide.Many sugar molecules linked together form a polysaccharide (polymer).
12Monosaccharide Milk Sugar Fruit Sugar Types of Carbs Use image to discuss the structure of the two simple sugars and their molecular formula C6H12O6. Use the InterWrite tablet to circle the functional group.Types of Carbs
13DisaccharideDifferentiate between the simple sugars and the complex sugar. Again, emphasize the structure and molecular formula C12H22O11. Use the InterWrite tablets to circle the functional group.Maltose is two glucose molecules; forms in digestive tract of humans during starch digestion. Types of Carbs
14Starch is straight chain of glucose molecules with few side branches. PolysaccharideIdentify the structure of the polysaccharide. Highlight for students how the long chains of monomers form this polymer. Also, use the InterWrite tablets to circle the functional group.Starch is straight chain of glucose molecules with few side branches.Types of Carbs
15Lipids The three types of lipids are fats, oils, and waxes. Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygenTypically contain two monomers – glycerol and fatty acidsGlycerol contains the hydroxyl (OH) group.Fatty acids contain the carboxyl (COOH) group.Emphasize the three types of lipids. Click link for glycerol and fatty acids to show a diagram of the two structures. Use InterWrite tablets to circle the functional group.
16Monomers in Lipids Lipids Discuss the differences between the glycerol and the fatty acids chain.Lipids
17Functions of Lipids Lipids store energy for later use by the body. Lipids also serve as padding and protection for the body.Lipids do not dissolve in water (hydrophobic), but may contain parts that can dissolve in water.The H : O ratio is higher in lipids than it is in carbohydrates.Identify the functions of the lipids. Make sure students have the same information on their Cornell note sheet.
18Structure of a Lipid Dissolves in water (hydrophilic) Does not dissolve in water (hydrophobic)Use this slide to discuss the hydrophilic and hydrophobic ends of the lipid molecule. The link will also take you to an image of the phospholipid bilayer.
19Phospholipid Found in cell membranes Head is the phosphate group. HydrophilicTails are the fatty acids.HydrophobicExplain to the students how the phosholipid bilayer works.
20Fatty AcidsLong chains of carbon atoms with attached hydrogen atoms (hydrocarbons)Saturated fats contain only single bonds between the carbon atoms.Unsaturated fats contain one or more double or triple bonds between the carbon atoms.Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated fats.
21Saturated & Unsaturated Fats Explain the structure.
22Proteins Proteins are the building materials for the body. Hair, skin, muscles, and organs are made mostly of proteins.Composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygenContain amine (NH2) and carboxyl (COOH) groupsIdentify the functions of proteins.
23Function of ProteinsThe building blocks of proteins are amino acids (monomers).Serve as enzymes which control rate of reactions and regulate cell processes.Amino acids are connected by a special type of bond called a peptide bond.Amino acid chains are called polypeptides.A protein contains one or more polypeptide chains.Additional functions for review. Use the link to an example of three different types of amino acids and a peptide bond.
24Amino Acids Function of Proteins Identify the three amino acids. Explain how they come together to form the peptide bond.Function of Proteins
25Types of ProteinsThere are two types of proteins – fibrous and globular.Fibrous protein (found in skin, tendons, bones, and muscles) does not dissolve in water (hydrophobic).Globular protein (found in enzymes, some hormones, and hemoglobin) can dissolve in water (hydrophilic).This slide is optional. Use if you would like your students to have this additional information regarding proteins. It is also linked to examples of each type of protein.
26Fibrous ProteinsKeratins are a family of fibrous structural proteins; tough and insoluble, they form the hard but nonmineralized structures found in reptiles, birds, amphibians and mammals.OptionalTypes of Proteins
27Globular ProteinsEnzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e. accelerate) chemical reactions.Almost all processes in a biological cell need enzymes in order to occur at significant rates.OptionalTypes of Proteins