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(IAQ). Introduction  A collective group of fine solid particles, aerosols, mist, smoke, dust, fibers and fumes are called Respirable particles  Particles.

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Presentation on theme: "(IAQ). Introduction  A collective group of fine solid particles, aerosols, mist, smoke, dust, fibers and fumes are called Respirable particles  Particles."— Presentation transcript:

1 (IAQ)

2 Introduction  A collective group of fine solid particles, aerosols, mist, smoke, dust, fibers and fumes are called Respirable particles  Particles in the size range of less than 10  m remain in air for a longer time and are of particular interest  These particulates are hazardous to human health:  They can penetrate into the Respiratory system  Can become carriers to toxic substances  Particulates that are smaller than 5  m can enter into the lungs

3 Introduction  Particulates less than 0.5  m can carry harmful toxin pollutants like radon, alpha particles and chemicals  The particulate size influences the sedimentation, impaction and diffusion of the particulate matter  Due to Impaction property, the particulate settle at the bends (for particles less than 0.5  m) of respiratory tract

4 Factors effecting deposition of the particulates in the respiratory tract  Size of the particulate  Density of the particulate  Shape of the particulate  Breathing pattern  Mean volumetric flow rate  Morphology of the respiratory tract

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6 Health Effects  Many studies revealed that ETS has adverse health effects, which was backed even by the tobacco industry (1989 symposium)  Smoking is the major cause of lung cancer both in men and women  ETS smoke consisting of side-stream smoke (SS) and exhaled mainstream smoke (MS) is a major component of Indoor air pollutants  Fibers with different chemical compositions can induce tumors  Asbestos and other manmade fibers are carcinogenic

7 Health standards of Fibers  Asbestos can also lead to lung cancer  Fibers with diameter less than 1  m and length greater than 5-10  m are particularly dangerous  Ambient air quality standard for outdoor air is 75 mg/m³ for long-term exposure and 260 mg/m³ for short-term exposure on 24hr average  For particulate less than diameter of 10  m the standards are:  55 mg/m³ for long-term periods  150 mg/m³ for short-term periods

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9 Sources of Respirable Particles  The major sources of respirable particles are from outdoors, tobacco smoke, wood burning and other sources  Unfiltered air carrying pollutants from industries, power plants and automobile exhausts  Humans are major contributors of the indoor pollutants  Relatively highly populated house has numerous pollutants  Cigars, cigarettes and pipes are major sources of ETS  The ETS contains nicotine, respirable particles, poly cyclic aromatics, CO, acrolein, NOx and number of other chemicals

10 Asbestos (a generic term) varieties  Actinolite  Amosite  Anthophyllite  Crocidolite  Tremolite  Chrysotile or white asbestos (accounts for 90% of fibers found)

11 Analysis of Fibers and its sources  Analysis of fibers is usually by:  Scanning electron method (SEM)  Transmission electron method (TEM)  Indoor concentration is high at peak activities like high foot traffic  Sources of indoor fibers in air include carpets, curtains and insulation  Fibers of size between 5 – 200  m are particularly of great interest due to their toxicity

12 Sources of Respirable Particles  Other sources of respirable particles are:  Gas fired appliances  Automotive airbags  Dust from laser printers  Industrial processes  Laser cutting of steel and welding are the major sources of particulates

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14 Respirables Particle characteristics and samplers  The aerosol particles are measured by mean of an aerosol sampler  The filters are based on the following characteristics:  Collection efficiency  Pressure drop through filter  Background contamination  Compatibility to analytical methods

15 Respirable Particles and measuring methods  Size of the particulate also helps in the selection of suitable removal equipment  ETS smoke is measured using are samplers and personal monitors  Fibrous particles can be detected by the intensity of scattered He – Ne laser light for particles  with length 2 – 200  m  Concentration of and above – 30 fibers/ cm³

16 Characteristics of Direct-reading Particle Monitors

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18 Mechanical Ventilation  This type of ventilation is divided to two types:  Fabric / cake filtration  Fibrous filtration  Cake filtration is used for high particulate concentration and large volume of gas  Fibrous filters are used for low particulate concentration and low flow rates  Extended surface area filters are more efficient than the panel filters for particles of micron ranges

19 Panel filters  Panel filters are most frequently used mechanical filters for removing particles from air  Filters are classified according to the removal efficiencies as:  Low efficiency filters – metal filters  Polyester and glass pads have efficiency of 10%  Medium efficiency filters – (20 – 50) %  High efficiency filters - commonly used in hospitals, office buildings and highly protected indoors

20 Mechanical filters and Electronic Air Cleaning  Other types include  High efficiency particle air (HEPA) have efficiency (99.99% %)  Ultra low particulate / penetration air (ULPA)  Using electrostatic technologies can increase efficiency of the filters  Electrostatic precipitator is the most efficient and widely used, as it removes up to 99% for particles less than 1  m in size  Fine particles like ETS smoke can be removed by using both electrostatic field and ion generator together

21 Absorption  Absorption devices  Wet collectors  Spray towers  Cyclone scrubbers  Impingement scrubbers  Venturi scrubbers  Sieve plate towers (successful in removing particles from effluent gases)  Liquid desiccants such as lithium chloride and triethylene glycol are commonly used for dehumidification

22 Adsorption  Adsorption  Activated carbon  Impregnated alumina bed with electronic air cleaners (for tobacco smoke)


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