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Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Seventh Edition Elaine N. Marieb Chapter.

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Presentation on theme: "Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Seventh Edition Elaine N. Marieb Chapter."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Seventh Edition Elaine N. Marieb Chapter 4 Body Membranes and Integumentary System

3 2 Types of Membranes in our Bodies 1. Epithelial Membranes 1.Cutaneous 2.Mucous membranes (mucosa) 3.Serous (serosa) 2. Connective Tissue Membrane 1.Synovial Membrane

4 Epithelial membranes 1. Cutaneous Membrane ( 1. Cutaneous Membrane (AKA Skin) Slide 4.3  “dry” – exposed to air stratified squamous epithelium & dense fibrous connective tissue protection, maintains boundaries, synthesize Vit D, Insulates, nerve receptors Stratified squamous Dense fibrous

5 Epithelial Membranes 2. Mucous Membranes (mucosa) Slide 4.4 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Epithelium (PCC) and simple columnar & loose connective tissue underneath  absorption or secretion open to the exterior  lines all organs that open to the exterior (respiratory & digestive system) Figure 4.1b

6 Epithelial membranes 3. Serous Membranes (serosa) Slide 4.5 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  simple squamous epithelium & loose connective tissue  surrounds body organs (closed to exterior)  Composed of 2 layers separated by fluid Figure 4.1c

7 Serous Membranes (Cont.) Come in paired layers (serous fluid between layers) Parietal: layer lines the cavity Serous Fluid (between layers) – clear fluid Visceral: layer lines the organ (viscera) Named by location (see next slide)

8 Examples of Serous Membranes Slide 4.6 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Peritoneal cavity Peritoneum Pleura Pericardium

9 Connective Tissue Membrane Synovial Membrane Slide 4.7 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Dense Fibrous connective tissue  lines capsules surrounding joints  Lubricates joint  Bursae- sacs under ligaments - cushion Figure 4.2 bursae

10 Functions of Integumentary System Slide 4.9a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Protection of underlying organs  Maintenance of body temp  Excretion of wastes  Synthesis of vitamin D  Maintain boundaries  Insulation and cushioning  Sensory reception of stimuli function specific to skin

11 Structures of skin Slide 4.13b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 4.4

12 Skin Structure

13  1. Epidermis  Avascular (no veins or arteries)  Keratinocytes (make protein for protection)  Melaninocytes (pigmented cells) Skin Structure: Epidermis keratinocytes Stratified squamous

14 Skin Structure: Epidermis 5 Strata melanocytes MM elanin (pigment in Melanocytes) yy ellow  brown  black PP rotects DNA in cells from UV rays (sun) Amount of melanin produced depends upon genetics and exposure to sunlight

15 Structures of skin  2. Dermis (hide) Dense fibrous connective, Collagen fibers and elastic fibers Contains:  Pain and nerve receptors (corpuscles)  Filled with Capillaries and blood vessels  Glands (sweat & Oil)

16 Structures of skin  2. Dermis Animal hide fingerprints Superficial layer (dermal papillae) make fingerprints

17 Structures of skin Slide 4.10b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hypodermis (subcutaneous)- NOT really part of the skin adipose connective Functions: Insulation, anchoring, protection

18 Skin Color Determinants Slide 4.14 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 11. Melanin YY ellow, reddish brown, black 22.Carotene OO range/yellow 3. Hemoglobin rosey

19 Appendages of the Skin Slide 4.15 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  2 kinds of cutaneous glands  2 kinds of cutaneous glands 1. Sebaceous (oil) glands 2. Sweat glands  Hair and hair follicles  Nails

20 1. Sebaceous Glands Slide 4.15 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Often seen where a hair protrudes outward.  Produces oil (sebum) for:  Lubrication  Killing bacteria

21 Sebaceous Glands (cont.) Slide 4.15 Clogged with sebum? = acne & pimples “Thanks a lot Puberty!!  ”

22 2. Sweat Glands (eccrine & apocrine) Slide 4.16 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Help maintains body temp.  Excretion of wastes (NH4, urea, uric acid)  pH of 4-6 (acidic) All overArmpits & genitals

23 Hair and Hair follicles Protection for eyes (eyelashes/brows) Keep debris out of respiratory system (nose hairs)

24 Hair and hair follicles Slide 4.18 Hair follicle Root & Shaft Made of keratinized epithelial cells (dead)  melanocytes (for color) melanocytes shaft

25 Hair and hair follicles Hair and hair follicles Slide 4.20 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Arrector pili muscle (goosebumps) Figure 4.7a goosebumps

26 Nails Slide 4.22 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings KK eratinized (dead & hard) modified epithelium CC uticle NN ail bed NN ail Matrix (responsible for nail growth)

27 5. Homeostatic Imbalances Slide 4.23 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Athlete’s foot- fungus  Cold sores- virus a. Infections and allergies

28 Homeostatic Imbalances Slide 4.24 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Dermatitis- allergy  Psoriasis- unknown cause a. Infections and allergies

29 5. Homeostatic Imbalances Slide 4.25 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Burns  Caused by heat, electricity, UV rays, or chem. Other systems affected- Leads to problems with immune and cardiovascular systems due to:  Dehydration  Electrolyte imbalance  Circulatory shock

30 Burns Slide 4.27 Severity- determined by degree ‘rule of nines’- see diagram on right

31 Skin Cancer- 3 types Slide 4.30 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  1. Basal cell carcinoma  Least malignant  Most common  99% curable  Sun induced  Pearl ring

32 Skin Cancer Types Slide 4.30 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  2. Squamous cell carcinoma  Metastasizes to lymph nodes  Early removal allows a good chance of cure  Scaly red elevated Squamous cell layer

33 Skin Cancer Types Slide 4.31 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  3. Malignant melanoma  Most deadly  Cancer of the Melanocytes  Metastasizes quickly

34 Signs of Skin Cancer: ABCDE Rule

35 Slide 4.24 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1. Milia -cysts in the hair follicle- common in newborns 2. Vernix Caseosa- sebum covering the newborn -lubricates at birth - protects infant from amniotic fluid Developmental Aspects

36 Slide 4.31 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  3. Fetus- lanugo (downy type hair)  Anchors Vernix Caseosa to fetus  4. Changes during puberty  Hair growth  Oil glands become active  Sweat glands become active

37 Developmental Aspects Slide 4.31  5. Adulthood  Hair color Delayed action gene  Hair follicles  Loss of elasticity  Skin thins Cold intolerance  Less oil

38 Tattoos Slide 4.31 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  ntable ntable

39 Picture This!!! A A B B C C E E D D F F


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