Bony Joints Synarthrosis Fused by bone Synostosis – Examples: frontal bone and mandible of infants
Fibrous Joints Two bones united by fibrous tissue Synarthrosis – Three kinds of fibrous joints: Sutures Gomphoses Syndesmoses
Fibrous Joints Sutures 3 types of sutures: serrate lap plane
Fibrous Joints Gomphoses Pegs fitted into sockets and held in place by ligaments. Example: The attachment of a tooth to its socket by the periodontal ligaments.
Fibrous Joints Syndesmoses Two bones are bound by long collagen fibers Example: Tibia and Fibula Radius and Ulna (Amphiarthrosis)
Cartilaginous Joints Linked by cartilage Two types: Synchondroses – bones bound by hyaline cartilage − Synarthrosis Example: Epiphyseal plate Symphyses – bones joined by fibro-cartilage − Amphiarthrosis Example: Pubic symphysis, intravertebral discs
Synovial Joints Diarthrosis Most familiar and important joints: jaw, hip, elbow, knee Features: Meniscus Bursae Osteoarthritis
Gliding joint Hinge joint Pivot joint Condyloid/Ellipsoid joint Saddle joint Ball-and-socket joint Types of Synovial JointsModels of Joint MotionExamples Manubrium Clavicle Ulna Humerus Atlas Axis Scaphoid bone Ulna Radius Metacarpal bone of thumb Trapezium Scapula Humerus Acromioclavicular and claviculosternal joints Intercarpal and intertarsal joints Vertebrocostal joints Sacro-iliac joints Elbow joints Knee joints Ankle joints Interphalangeal joints Atlas/axis Proximal radio-ulnar joints Radiocarpal joints Metacarpophalangeal joints 2–5 Metatarsophalangeal joints First carpometacarpal joints Shoulder joints Hip joints Figure 8.2 6
Accessory Structures Tendons – connects bones to muscle Ligaments – attaches one bone to another
Foot Arches 3 springy arches Arches held together by short, strong ligaments
Biomechanics Lever – an elongated, rigid object that rotates around a fixed point called the fulcrum. Rotation occurs when an effort applied to one point on the lever overcomes a resistance at some other point. fulcrum – effort – resistance –
Types of Levers First Class Fulcrum is in the middle Atlanto-occipital joint
Types of Levers Second Class The resistance is in the middle Mandible
Types of Levers Third Class The effort is applied in the middle The forearm when flexing the elbow
Movement of Synovial Joints Activity Using your book and this handout: 1.Properly perform each type of synovial movement 2.Choose an action (think outside the box) that uses that movement. E.g.: what might you be doing with that type of movement? 3.Label which type of synovial joint would be used
Movement of Synovial Joints Flexion – decreases joint angle lateral flexion Ulnar & Radial flexion Extension – straightens a joint and generally returns a body part to the zero position Hyperextension – extreme extension of a joint beyond zero position
Movement of Synovial Joints Abduction – the movement of a body part in the frontal plane away from the midline. Adduction – movement back toward the midline
Movement of Synovial Joints Elevation – raises a body part superiorly Depression – lowers a body part inferiorly
Movement of Synovial Joints Protraction – moving a part forward anteriorly in the horizontal plane Retraction – moving a part backward posteriorly in the horizontal plane
Movement of Synovial Joints Circumduction – one end remains stationary while the other end makes a circular motion.
Movement of Synovial Joints Rotation – a bone spins on its longitudinal axis. Lateral (external) rotation – spin away from midline Medial (internal) rotation – spin towards the midline
Movement of Synovial Joints Supination – turns the palm to face anteriorly or upward, radius is parallel to ulna. Pronation – turns the palm to face posteriorly or downward, radius crosses ulna.
Movement of the Feet Dorsiflexion – elevate the toes Plantar flexion – point toes downward
Movement of the Feet Inversion – tips the soles medially, somewhat facing each other Eversion – tips the soles laterally, away from each other
Exam 1 Chapters: 1, 6, 7, 8 Fill in the blank Multiple Choice Matching Short answer True/False Lab Practical Lab indentification name of bone, surface feature, right/left, cranial/facial, type of joint, male vs. female All fill in the blank
“Bones are the solid, non-living structures that hold up our bodies.” Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Why?