11 Accessory StructuresTendons – connects bones to muscleLigaments – attaches one bone to another
12 Foot Arches 3 springy arches Arches held together by short, strong ligaments
13 BiomechanicsLever – an elongated, rigid object that rotates around a fixed point called the fulcrum. Rotation occurs when an effort applied to one point on the lever overcomes a resistance at some other point.fulcrum –effort –resistance –
14 Types of Levers First Class Fulcrum is in the middleAtlanto-occipital joint
15 The resistance is in the middle Types of LeversSecond ClassThe resistance is in the middleMandible
16 Types of Levers Third Class The effort is applied in the middleThe forearm when flexing the elbow
17 Movement of Synovial Joints ActivityUsing your book and this handout:Properly perform each type of synovial movementChoose an action (think outside the box) that uses that movement. E.g.: what might you be doing with that type of movement?Label which type of synovial joint would be used
18 Movement of Synovial Joints Flexion – decreases joint anglelateral flexionUlnar & Radial flexionExtension – straightens a joint and generally returns a body part to the zero positionHyperextension – extreme extension of a joint beyond zero position
19 Movement of Synovial Joints Abduction – the movement of a body part in the frontal plane away from the midline.Adduction – movement back toward the midline
20 Movement of Synovial Joints Elevation – raises a body part superiorlyDepression – lowers a body part inferiorly
21 Movement of Synovial Joints Protraction – moving a part forward anteriorly in the horizontal planeRetraction – moving a part backward posteriorly in the horizontal plane
22 Movement of Synovial Joints Circumduction – one end remains stationary while the other end makes a circular motion.
23 Movement of Synovial Joints Rotation – a bone spins on its longitudinal axis.Lateral (external) rotation – spin away from midlineMedial (internal) rotation – spin towards the midline
24 Movement of Synovial Joints Supination – turns the palm to face anteriorly or upward, radius is parallel to ulna.Pronation – turns the palm to face posteriorly or downward, radius crosses ulna.
25 Movement of the Feet Dorsiflexion – elevate the toes Plantar flexion – point toes downward
26 Movement of the FeetInversion – tips the soles medially, somewhat facing each otherEversion – tips the soles laterally, away from each other
27 Exam 1Chapters: 1, 6, 7, 8Fill in the blankMultiple ChoiceMatchingShort answerTrue/FalseLab PracticalLab indentificationname of bone, surface feature, right/left, cranial/facial, type of joint, male vs. femaleAll fill in the blank
28 “Bones are the solid, non-living structures that hold up our bodies.” Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Why?