7Label… Arch of the aorta SVC Pulmonary artery Pulmonary trunk RA RV LV Which structures of the heart sit anteriorly and which sit posteriorly? Right anterior, left posteriorWhy? This is because, during development, the heart is a midline structure that rotates to the leftIVCApex
8What are the three layers of pericardium? Fibrous pericardium – what are its attachments?Parietal layer of the serous pericardiumVisceral layer of the serous pericardiumWhat can be used to clamp arterial outflow during cardiac surgery?Between which layers would a ruptured coronary artery/ventricle/atrium bleed? What could this cause -> in the pericardial cavity (between parietal and visceral layers). Could cause cardiac tamponade.Fibrous pericardium is attached inferiorly to the central tendon of the diaphragm, hence why it moves inferiorly during inspiration. Also attached anteriorly to the sternum by the sternopericardial ligaments. Its apex is continuous with the adventitia of the great vesselsTransverse pericardial sinus = a passage between two sites of reflected serous pericardium, separating the arteries from the veins
9What is the function of the fibrous skeleton? Prevents free conduction of electrical signals from the atria to the ventricles → AVN only route for signal conductionAlso provides structure and support for the heart → it is an attachment point for the AV valvesMitral valveTricuspid valveCan anyone know what is being shown on this diagram?
10Atrioventricular valves Name the AV valves. Where are they located?Mitral (left ventricle) and tricuspid (right ventricle). Located between the atria and the ventriclesHow are they anchored to the ventricle wall?By tendons (chordae tendineae), which are attached to papillary musclesWhat may be the consequences of damage to the papillary muscles?Valve incompetence and cardiac murmur → mitral/tricuspid regurgitation
11Semilunar valves Name the semilunar valves. Where are they located? Aortic (left ventricle) and pulmonary (right ventricle). Located between the ventricles and the aorta/PTWhat happens to the valve cusps during systole/diastole?PosteriorRPALPDuring systole the cusps are pushed TOWARD the vessel wallsDuring diastole blood catches in the pockets and CLOSES the valveHow many cusps are the semilunar valves made of? How are the cusps named? (if this is posterior and this is anterior?)PRALAAortic valveAnteriorPulmonary valve
12Coronary arteries LCA RCA SAN artery SAN R & L atria 65% from RCA,35% from circumflexCircumflex arteryLeft atrium and ventricleContinues as posterior intraventricular in 40%Provides AV nodal branch in 20%LCAAnterior interventricular arteryR & L ventriclesMajority of septum anterior ⅔AVN in 20%RCAPosterior interventricular arteryPosterior ⅓ of septumAVN in 80%RCA is dominant (gives off PIVA) in 60%LCA is dominant in 40%