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ARTHROLOGY Where 2 or more bones join. © Robert A. Holmes, DVM, MS, PhD.

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Presentation on theme: "ARTHROLOGY Where 2 or more bones join. © Robert A. Holmes, DVM, MS, PhD."— Presentation transcript:

1 ARTHROLOGY Where 2 or more bones join. © Robert A. Holmes, DVM, MS, PhD

2 Compendium joint article


4 Sweeny (suprascapular n.)

5 Clinical Importance of Joints  Degenerative joint disease Trauma – fracture - instability  Developmental Ununited anconeal process Hip dysplasia  Immune Systemic lupus erythematosis  Metabolic OCD  Infectious Polyarthritis Lyme disease  Neoplastic Synovial cell sarcoma

6 Purposes of Joints  Allow movement. Directed not random.  Provide stability.  Bone growth site. Bone growth site

7 Joint Nomenclature  Common names, i.e. shoulder, elbowCommon names  Colloquial names –Colloquial names  femorotibial = stifle  carpus = knee  fetlock, pastern, coffin  Scientific, descriptive names. Usually from the bones or region forming the joint.Scientific, descriptive names

8 Categories of Joints  Fibrous  Cartilaginous  Synovial Synarthrodial i.e. rigid Diarthrodial i.e. moveable Old Terminology Current Terminology

9 Category Classification 1  1. Fibrous joints – joined by dense white fibrous connective tissue. (syn = union) Sutures – [L. sutura a seam] narrow strips of CT. Found mostly in the skull. Allows the growth of bone plates. Stops as ossification occurs.Sutures Syndesmosis – [Gr. syndesmos band] a type of fibrous joint in which the intervening fibrous connective tissue forms an interosseous membrane or ligament. Between radius and ulna.Syndesmosis Gomphosis – [Gr. a bolting together] tooth attachmentsGomphosis

10 Category Classification 2  2. Cartilaginous joints Symphysis – divided by a series of tissues, i.e.. cartilage, fibrocartilage, or fibrous tissue in the middle of symmetrical halves. Pubis, mandible.Symphysis Synchondrosis – [Gr. a growing into one cartilage] a union between two bones formed by either hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage; it is usually temporary, the intervening cartilage being converted into bone before adult life. Skull, hyoid bones.Synchondrosis Physis – between epiphysis and diaphysis.Physis Intervertebral disks.Intervertebral disks

11 Category Classification 3  3. Synovial joints [Gr. syn with + oon egg]Synovial joints Separated by fluid-filled space. synovial membrane fibrous capsule fibrous bands – ligaments articular surface –hyaline cartilage (fibrocartilage). synovial fluid –lubrication AND nutrition disks or menisci –provide support for bony incongruities –stifle and tmj Periarticular Articular Intraarticular

12 Synovial Joint Structure  1. Synovial fluid / space  lubrication  nutrition  clear-yellow, viscous  2. Synovial membrane  3. Articular cartilage  avascular  no nerves  nutrition by diffusion  synovial fluid  vessels – capsule and bone  4. Fibrous joint capsule  5. Periosteum  6. Cortex 2 + 4 = joint capsule

13 Synovial joint blood and nerve supplies  7. Joint space  8. Synovial fold  9. Synovial villi  10. Artery / vein  11. Efferent to blood vessels, afferent for pain and proprioception. Cartilage nutrition 1. synovial fluid 2. blood supply bone, joint capsule

14 Synovial – Disk and Meniscus

15 Synovial joints Shoulder Stifle Return

16 biceps tendon and retinaculum

17 Joint Capsule and Ligaments

18 Shoulder Radiograph and Arthrogram Contrast media in joint space.

19 glenoid and humerus en face Glenoid – scapula Humeral head

20 Joint Taps - Synovial Fluid Analysis

21 Joint Tap Approaches

22 Movements  Translation – sliding without changing orientation  Rotation Inward Outward  Pendular – angular or swinging about an axis flexion extension adduction abduction circumduction

23 Flexion and Extension Flexion decrease joint angle Extension increase joint angle In saggital plane Hyper extension / flexion – beyond normal ranges.

24 Adduction & Abduction Midline Adduction - bring towards median plane. Add 2 numbers – bring together. Abduction – move away from median plane. The child was abducted – taken away. In transverse planes.

25 Circumduction Flexion +/- Extension +/- Adduction +/- Abduction Infinitely variable number of combinations to form complex actions.

26 Joint Surfaces Flexor Surface Flexion Angle Extension Angle Extensor Surface

27 Mechanics of Joint Movement Long head triceps: 1.flex shoulder 2.extend elbow Other triceps: extend elbow only Biceps brachii 1.extend shoulder 2.flex elbow Triceps: Same insertion Different origins What joint surfaces are spanned?

28 Weight vs non weight bearing. What point is considered fixed or immovable? 1.Standing – leg fixed, head moves. 2.Laying – head fixed, leg moves. Brachiocephalicus m.

29 Synovial Joints Classified by Geometry  Plane  Hinge  Pivot  Condylar  Ellipsoidal  Saddle  Spheroidal

30 Plane joint vertebral articulations Plane joint 2 “flat” planes

31 Hinge joint (ginglymus = hinge) Movement in only 1 plane

32 Pivot joint peg in ring Atlantoaxial joint

33 Condylar 2 knuckle condyles Stifle “Knee” Femorotibial

34 Ellipsoidal Oval surface movement in 2 planes

35 Saddle 2 surfaces biaxial movement

36 Spheroidal ball and socket greatest movement

37 Slides Section

38 Mandible slide Return

39 Skull Slides Return

40 Tibia and Fibula Return

41 Humerus Return

42 Nomenclature graphic Shoulder bounded by: scapula and humerus scapulohumeral joint Hip bounded by: os coxae (pelvis) and femur coxofemoral joint 

43 Deer skull

44 Metaphysis Physis Epiphysis Return

45 Medial coronoid process DJD

46 Open vs Closed Physes

47 Intervertebral Disk nucleus pulposus anulus fibrosus Return

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