Presentation on theme: "AMPHIBOLES (double chains) General formula: X 2 Y 5 Z 8 O 22 (OH) 2 the box is a site that may be vacant and takes Na and K X= Ca, Mg, Fe, Na; Y="— Presentation transcript:
AMPHIBOLES (double chains) General formula: X 2 Y 5 Z 8 O 22 (OH) 2 the box is a site that may be vacant and takes Na and K X= Ca, Mg, Fe, Na; Y= Mg, Fe, Al; Z= Si, Al Taking the first possibility for each site gives Ca 2 Mg 5 Si 8 O 22 (OH) 2 tremolite Ca 2 (Mg,Fe) 5 Si 8 O 22 (OH) 2 actinolite (Mg,Fe) 7 Si 8 O 22 (OH) 2 cummingtonite Na 2 (Mg,Fe) 3 Al 2 Si 8 O 22 (OH) 2 glaucophane Na 2 Fe 2+ 3 Fe 3+ 2 Si 8 O 22 (OH) 2 riebeckite
Amphibole double chains Tremolite Ca 2 Mg 5 Si 8 O 22 (OH) 2 Chains of Si 4 O 11 (each SiO 4 tetrahedron shares two oxygens to form the chain)
OPTICS Most amphiboles are monoclinic and most sections cut parallel to C have inclined extinction Coloured amphiboles are trichroic (glaucophane & riebeckite strongly so) Well formed crystals common in igneous rocks In low grade metamorphic rocks amphiboles tend to be fibrous but are more polygonal at high grades
Igneous hornblende Hornblende with plagioclase inclusions in gabbro from Ben Bullen Similar hornblende with plagioclase inclusions in mafic igneous rock
Hornblende Hornblende Brown hornblende from Zone 3 Broken Hill Green hornblende partially replacing pyroxene in meta- andesite
Where do they occur? Tremolite (colourless and fibrous) in very Mg-rich metamorphic rocks (meta-dolomites, meta- peridotites) Actinolite (green & fibrous) in low grade meta-basalts Glaucophane (lavender) in high pressure meta- basalts Riebeckite (pleochroic dark blue – yellow - green) in trachytes, quartz syenites and alkali granites and in meta-BIFs in part as the fibrous variety crocidolite Cummingtonite (c’less or pale green, multiple twins) occurs in some igneous rocks (rhyolites) and in some amphibolites
ACTINOLITE/HORNBLENDE Hornblende is like actinolite with added Al, Na & K Ca 2( Mg,Fe) 5 Si 8 O 22 (OH) 2 actinolite Hornblende has Na+K in the vacant site, balanced by Al replacing Si and Al+Al substituting for Mg+Si. Some Ti and Fe 3+ also in the Y site NaCa 2 (Mg,Fe) 4 Al Si 6 Al 2 O 22 (OH) 2 hornblende Most diorites,some gabbros and many I-type granodiorites have hornblende. It also occurs as a phenocryst in some andesites and dacites. Some pyroxene is replaced by actinolite as intrusions cool Meta-basalts have actinolite at low grade & hornblende at intermediate to high grade. Granulites have enstatite that forms as hornblende begins to break down
Amphibolites and granulites at Broken Hill Zone 1 Blue-green hornblende Zone 2 Green/brown hornblende Zone 3 Brown hornblende and cpx + opx Changes involve increases in Na, Al and Ti and a decrease in ferric iron.
MICAS X 2 Y 4-6 Z 8 O 20 (OH,F) 4 X 2 Y 4-6 Z 8 O 20 (OH,F) 4 (If Y=4:dioctohedral; 6:trioctohedral) X=K, Na, Ca; Y=Al, Fe, Mg,Li; Z=Si, Al Common micas are: Muscovite (Na - paragonite) K 2 Al 4 Si 6 Al 2 O 20 (OH,F) 4 Phlogopite (end-member) K 2 Mg 6 Si 6 Al 2 O 20 (OH,F) 4 Biotite K 2 (Mg,Fe,Al) 6 Si 5 Al 3 O 20 (OH,F) 4 Rare micas include: Margarite Ca 2 Al 4 Si 4 Al 4 O 20 (OH,F) 4 Lepidolite K 2 (Li,Al) 5-6 Si 6-5 Al 2-3 O 20 (OH,F) 4
Mica structure: Sheets of (Si,Al)O 4 tetrahedra 2 sheets with opposite facing are connected by octohedrally coordinated atoms to form a sandwich. The sandwiches are weakly bonded with K atoms. Monoclinic but pseudo-hexagonal
Micas in igneous rocks Biotite is common in K-rich plutonic rocks from gabbro to granite. Biotite coexists with hornblende in many I-type granites and with cordierite in many S-type granites. Phlogopite is a minor mineral in parts of the mantle. Biotite also occurs in many potassic andesites, dacites and rhyolites Muscovite occurs in a small number of granites as a primary mineral but occurs in many as a minor alteration minerals formed as the pluton cools. A couple of very rare rhyolites have muscovite phenocrysts
Micas in metamorphic rocks. Meta-mudstones and meta-granites contain biotite at all except the lowest and highest grades. At low grade muscovite and chlorite are present and at the highest enstatite and K-feldspar Muscovite is present in many meta-mudstones except at the highest grades when it is replaced by andalusite/sillimanite plus K-feldspar K-rich meta-basalts/andesites will also contain biotite Metalimestones with K and Al can have phlogopite
Micas in rocks continued… Micas are very common in pegmatites which were mined for large books of muscovite that were used as an electrical and thermal insulator. (manufactured products have replaced mica in this role) The clay mineral illite is very similar to muscovite in composition (a little more Si and less K). On deep burial this changes to muscovite Detrital muscovite is not uncommon in sandstones but biotite is common only in pyroclastic sedimentary rocks and their redeposited equivalents
Biotite is easily deformed and perhaps surprisingly, so is quartz. S-type granites (lots of quartz & mica) are significantly more likely to show deformation than I- type granites
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