2Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture Hematoma formationTorn blood vessels hemorrhageA mass of clotted blood (hematoma) forms at the fracture siteSite becomes swollen, painful, and inflamedFigure
3Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture Fibrocartilaginous callus formsGranulation tissue (soft callus) forms a few days after the fractureCapillaries grow into the tissue and phagocytic cells begin cleaning debrisFigure
4Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture Bony callus formationNew bone trabeculae appear in the fibrocartilaginous callusFibrocartilaginous callus converts into a bony (hard) callusBone callus begins 3-4 weeks after injury, and continues until firm union is formed 2-3 months laterFigure
5Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture Bone remodelingExcess material on the bone shaft exterior and in the medullary canal is removedCompact bone is laid down to reconstruct shaft wallsFigure
6Joints of the Skeletal System ArticulationsJunctions between bonesBind parts of skeletal system togetherMake bone growth possiblePermit parts of the skeleton to change shape during childbirthEnable body to move in response to skeletal muscle contraction8-2
7Classification of Joints Fibrous Jointsdense connective tissues connect bonesbetween bones in close contactsynarthroticimmovableamphiarthroticslightly movablediarthroticfreely movableCartilaginous Jointshyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage connect bonesSynovial Jointsmost complexallow free movement8-3
8The joints between the bodies of the vertebrae of the backbone are best described as immovable.slightly movable.freely movable.synovial.
9Fibrous Joints 3 Types Syndesmosis Suture Gomphosis Syndesmosis long fibers connect bonesamphiarthroticdistal ends of tibia and fibula8-4
10Fibrous Joints Suture between flat bones synarthrotic thin layer of connective tissue connects bonesGomphosiscone-shaped bony process in a sockettooth in jawbonesynarthrotic8-5
11A gomphosis is an example of a(n) fibrous joint.cartilagenous joint.synovial joint.ball-and-socket joint.
12A suture is an example of a(n) fibrous joint.cartilagenous joint.synovial joint.none of the above
13Cartilaginous Joints 2 Types Synchondrosis Symphysis Synchondrosis bands of hyaline cartilage unite bonesepiphyseal plate (temporary)between manubrium and first ribsynarthrotic8-6
14Cartilaginous Joints Symphysis pad of fibrocartilage between bones pubis symphysisjoint between bodies of vertebraeamphiarthrotic8-7
15Cartilagenous joints are connected by synovial fluid.fibrous connective tissue.hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage.a joint capsule.
16Synovial Joints: General Structure Synovial joints all have the followingArticular cartilageJoint (synovial) cavityArticular capsuleSynovial fluidReinforcing ligaments
18Synovial Joints: General Structure Figure 8.3a, b
19Sprain: injury to ligament Strain: injury to muscle or tendon
20Synovial Joints: Friction-Reducing Structures Bursae – flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes and containing synovial fluidCommon where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub togetherTendon sheath – elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon
22Synovial Joints: Stability Stability is determined by:Articular surfaces – shape determines what movements are possibleLigaments – unite bones and prevent excessive or undesirable motionMuscle tone:Muscle tendons across joints acting as stabilizing factorsTendons that are kept tight at all times by muscle tone
23Types of Synovial Joints Ball-and-Socket JointhipshoulderCondyloid Jointbetween metacarpals and phalanges8-9
246. Ball-and-Socket Joints A spherical or hemispherical head of one bone articulates with a cuplike socket of anotherMultiaxial joints permit the most freely moving synovial jointsExamples: shoulder and hip joints
25Synovial Joints: Shoulder Stability Rotator cuff (four tendons) that encircles the shoulder joint and blends with the articular capsuleFigure 8.10a
264. Condyloid, or Ellipsoidal, Joints Oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression in anotherBoth articular surfaces are ovalBiaxial joints permit all angular motionsExamples: radiocarpal (wrist) joints, and metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joints
27Which of the following allows the most possible movements? condyloid jointhinge jointball-and-socket jointpivot joint
28Types of Synovial Joints Gliding Jointbetween carpalsbetween tarsalsHinge Jointelbowbetween phalanges8-10
29Types of Synovial Joints 1. Plane jointsArticular surfaces are essentially flatAllow only slipping or gliding movementsOnly examples of nonaxial jointsFigure 8.7a
30Types of Synovial Joints (continue) 2. Hinge jointsCylindrical projections of one bone fits into a trough-shaped surface on anotherMotion is along a single planeUniaxial joints permit flexion and extension onlyExamples: elbow and interphalangeal joints
31Synovial Joints: Knee – Other Supporting Structures Figure 8.8b
32Types of Synovial Joints Pivot Jointbetween proximal ends of radius and ulnaSaddle Jointbetween carpal and metacarpal of thumb8-11
333. Pivot JointsRounded end of one bone protrudes into a “sleeve,” or ring, composed of bone (and possibly ligaments) of anotherOnly uniaxial movement allowedExamples: joint between the axis and the dens, and the proximal radioulnar joint
345. Saddle JointsSimilar to condyloid joints but allow greater movementEach articular surface has both a concave and a convex surfaceExample: carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
35Which of the following is not a synovial joint? Condyloidball-and-socketSaddlesymphysis pubis
36A synovial membrane surrounds the synovial cavity. secretes synovial fluid.stores adipose tissue.all of the above
37Bones of a synovial joint are held together by a synovial membrane.a joint capsule.a meniscus.a bursa.
38Fluid-filled sacs found between the skin and underlying bony prominences are called ligaments.menisci.bursae.none of the above
39Types of Joint Movements abduction/adductiondorsiflexion/plantarflexionflexion/extension/hyperextension8-12
40Types of Joint Movements rotation/circumductionsupination/pronation8-13
41In which of the following is rotational movement possible? ball-and-socket jointCondyloid jointhinge jointall of the above
42The rotator cuff of the shoulder is composed mainly of muscle fibers.articular cartilage.epithelium and loose connective tissue.tendons and fibrous connective tissue.
43Types of Joint Movements eversion/inversionprotraction/retractionelevation/depression8-14
44A muscle end attached to a relatively immovable part is called the symphysis.articulation.origin.insertion.
45Shoulder Joint ball-and-socket head of humerus glenoid cavity of scapulaloose joint capsulebursaeligaments prevent displacementvery wide range of movement8-15
47Elbow Joint hinge joint gliding joint flexion and extension trochlea of humerustrochlear notch of ulnagliding jointcapitulum of humerushead of radiusflexion and extensionmany reinforcing ligamentsstable joint8-17
51Which of the following movements could occur at the hip joint? ExtensionAdductionRotationall of the above
52Knee Joint largest joint most complex medial and lateral condyles of distal end of femurmedial and lateral condyles of proximal end of tibiafemur articulates anteriorly with patellamodified hinge jointflexion/extension/little rotationstrengthened by many ligaments and tendonsmenisci separate femur and tibiabursae8-21
53The largest and most complex synovial joint is the hip joint.knee joint.elbow joint.shoulder joint.
55Fibrocartilage disks that divide the joint into two compartments are called menisci.bursae.capsules.ligaments.
56Life-Span Changes Joint stiffness is an early sign of aging Regular exercise can prevent stiffnessFibrous joints first to strengthen over a lifetimeChanges in symphysis joints of vertebral column diminish flexibility and decrease heightSynovial joints lose elasticity8-23
57Osteoarthritis may develop as a result of mechanical stress on the subchondral plate.diaphysis.epiphyseal disk.periosteum.
58Clinical Application Joint Disorders Sprains damage to cartilage, ligaments, or tendons associated with jointsforceful twisting of jointBursitisinflammation of a bursaoveruse of a jointArthritisinflamed, swollen, painful jointsRheumatoid ArthritisOsteoarthritisGout8-24
59damage to articular cartilage and invasion by fibrous tissue. Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by a sequence of degenerative changes that can be described asthe synovial membrane becomes inflamed and grows thicker, forming a mass called pannus.damage to articular cartilage and invasion by fibrous tissue.fibrous tissues become ossified and bones fuse together (bony ankylosis).all of the above
60bursitis. sprain. dislocation. ankylosis. When the articulating bones of a joint have been displaced and the joint is clearly deformed, the condition is calledbursitis.sprain.dislocation.ankylosis.
61Arthroscopy is a procedure used to examine the heart.lungs.digestive organs.none of the above