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1 PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany
Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Tenth Edition Shier w Butler w Lewis Chapter 8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 8-1

2 Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture
Hematoma formation Torn blood vessels hemorrhage A mass of clotted blood (hematoma) forms at the fracture site Site becomes swollen, painful, and inflamed Figure

3 Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture
Fibrocartilaginous callus forms Granulation tissue (soft callus) forms a few days after the fracture Capillaries grow into the tissue and phagocytic cells begin cleaning debris Figure

4 Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture
Bony callus formation New bone trabeculae appear in the fibrocartilaginous callus Fibrocartilaginous callus converts into a bony (hard) callus Bone callus begins 3-4 weeks after injury, and continues until firm union is formed 2-3 months later Figure

5 Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture
Bone remodeling Excess material on the bone shaft exterior and in the medullary canal is removed Compact bone is laid down to reconstruct shaft walls Figure

6 Joints of the Skeletal System
Articulations Junctions between bones Bind parts of skeletal system together Make bone growth possible Permit parts of the skeleton to change shape during childbirth Enable body to move in response to skeletal muscle contraction 8-2

7 Classification of Joints
Fibrous Joints dense connective tissues connect bones between bones in close contact synarthrotic immovable amphiarthrotic slightly movable diarthrotic freely movable Cartilaginous Joints hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage connect bones Synovial Joints most complex allow free movement 8-3

8 The joints between the bodies of the vertebrae of the backbone are best described as
immovable. slightly movable. freely movable. synovial.

9 Fibrous Joints 3 Types Syndesmosis Suture Gomphosis Syndesmosis
long fibers connect bones amphiarthrotic distal ends of tibia and fibula 8-4

10 Fibrous Joints Suture between flat bones synarthrotic
thin layer of connective tissue connects bones Gomphosis cone-shaped bony process in a socket tooth in jawbone synarthrotic 8-5

11 A gomphosis is an example of a(n)
fibrous joint. cartilagenous joint. synovial joint. ball-and-socket joint.

12 A suture is an example of a(n)
fibrous joint. cartilagenous joint. synovial joint. none of the above

13 Cartilaginous Joints 2 Types Synchondrosis Symphysis Synchondrosis
bands of hyaline cartilage unite bones epiphyseal plate (temporary) between manubrium and first rib synarthrotic 8-6

14 Cartilaginous Joints Symphysis pad of fibrocartilage between bones
pubis symphysis joint between bodies of vertebrae amphiarthrotic 8-7

15 Cartilagenous joints are connected by
synovial fluid. fibrous connective tissue. hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage. a joint capsule.

16 Synovial Joints: General Structure
Synovial joints all have the following Articular cartilage Joint (synovial) cavity Articular capsule Synovial fluid Reinforcing ligaments

17 Synovial Joints diarthrotic joint cavity synovial fluid joint capsule
synovial membrane bursae 8-8

18 Synovial Joints: General Structure
Figure 8.3a, b

19 Sprain: injury to ligament
Strain: injury to muscle or tendon

20 Synovial Joints: Friction-Reducing Structures
Bursae – flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes and containing synovial fluid Common where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together Tendon sheath – elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon

21 Synovial Joints: Friction-Reducing Structures
Figure 8.4

22 Synovial Joints: Stability
Stability is determined by: Articular surfaces – shape determines what movements are possible Ligaments – unite bones and prevent excessive or undesirable motion Muscle tone: Muscle tendons across joints acting as stabilizing factors Tendons that are kept tight at all times by muscle tone

23 Types of Synovial Joints
Ball-and-Socket Joint hip shoulder Condyloid Joint between metacarpals and phalanges 8-9

24 6. Ball-and-Socket Joints
A spherical or hemispherical head of one bone articulates with a cuplike socket of another Multiaxial joints permit the most freely moving synovial joints Examples: shoulder and hip joints

25 Synovial Joints: Shoulder Stability
Rotator cuff (four tendons) that encircles the shoulder joint and blends with the articular capsule Figure 8.10a

26 4. Condyloid, or Ellipsoidal, Joints
Oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression in another Both articular surfaces are oval Biaxial joints permit all angular motions Examples: radiocarpal (wrist) joints, and metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joints

27 Which of the following allows the most possible movements?
condyloid joint hinge joint ball-and-socket joint pivot joint

28 Types of Synovial Joints
Gliding Joint between carpals between tarsals Hinge Joint elbow between phalanges 8-10

29 Types of Synovial Joints
1. Plane joints Articular surfaces are essentially flat Allow only slipping or gliding movements Only examples of nonaxial joints Figure 8.7a

30 Types of Synovial Joints (continue)
2. Hinge joints Cylindrical projections of one bone fits into a trough-shaped surface on another Motion is along a single plane Uniaxial joints permit flexion and extension only Examples: elbow and interphalangeal joints

31 Synovial Joints: Knee – Other Supporting Structures
Figure 8.8b

32 Types of Synovial Joints
Pivot Joint between proximal ends of radius and ulna Saddle Joint between carpal and metacarpal of thumb 8-11

33 3. Pivot Joints Rounded end of one bone protrudes into a “sleeve,” or ring, composed of bone (and possibly ligaments) of another Only uniaxial movement allowed Examples: joint between the axis and the dens, and the proximal radioulnar joint

34 5. Saddle Joints Similar to condyloid joints but allow greater movement Each articular surface has both a concave and a convex surface Example: carpometacarpal joint of the thumb

35 Which of the following is not a synovial joint?
Condyloid ball-and-socket Saddle symphysis pubis

36 A synovial membrane surrounds the synovial cavity.
secretes synovial fluid. stores adipose tissue. all of the above

37 Bones of a synovial joint are held together by
a synovial membrane. a joint capsule. a meniscus. a bursa.

38 Fluid-filled sacs found between the skin and underlying bony prominences are called
ligaments. menisci. bursae. none of the above

39 Types of Joint Movements
abduction/adduction dorsiflexion/plantarflexion flexion/extension/hyperextension 8-12

40 Types of Joint Movements
rotation/circumduction supination/pronation 8-13

41 In which of the following is rotational movement possible?
ball-and-socket joint Condyloid joint hinge joint all of the above

42 The rotator cuff of the shoulder is composed mainly of
muscle fibers. articular cartilage. epithelium and loose connective tissue. tendons and fibrous connective tissue.

43 Types of Joint Movements
eversion/inversion protraction/retraction elevation/depression 8-14

44 A muscle end attached to a relatively immovable part is called the
symphysis. articulation. origin. insertion.

45 Shoulder Joint ball-and-socket head of humerus
glenoid cavity of scapula loose joint capsule bursae ligaments prevent displacement very wide range of movement 8-15

46 Shoulder Joint 8-16

47 Elbow Joint hinge joint gliding joint flexion and extension
trochlea of humerus trochlear notch of ulna gliding joint capitulum of humerus head of radius flexion and extension many reinforcing ligaments stable joint 8-17

48 Elbow Joint 8-18

49 Hip Joint ball-and-socket joint head of femur acetabulum
heavy joint capsule many reinforcing ligaments less freedom of movement than shoulder joint 8-19

50 Hip Joint 8-20

51 Which of the following movements could occur at the hip joint?
Extension Adduction Rotation all of the above

52 Knee Joint largest joint most complex
medial and lateral condyles of distal end of femur medial and lateral condyles of proximal end of tibia femur articulates anteriorly with patella modified hinge joint flexion/extension/little rotation strengthened by many ligaments and tendons menisci separate femur and tibia bursae 8-21

53 The largest and most complex synovial joint is the
hip joint. knee joint. elbow joint. shoulder joint.

54 Knee Joint 8-22

55 Fibrocartilage disks that divide the joint into two compartments are called
menisci. bursae. capsules. ligaments.

56 Life-Span Changes Joint stiffness is an early sign of aging
Regular exercise can prevent stiffness Fibrous joints first to strengthen over a lifetime Changes in symphysis joints of vertebral column diminish flexibility and decrease height Synovial joints lose elasticity 8-23

57 Osteoarthritis may develop as a result of mechanical stress on the
subchondral plate. diaphysis. epiphyseal disk. periosteum.

58 Clinical Application Joint Disorders Sprains
damage to cartilage, ligaments, or tendons associated with joints forceful twisting of joint Bursitis inflammation of a bursa overuse of a joint Arthritis inflamed, swollen, painful joints Rheumatoid Arthritis Osteoarthritis Gout 8-24

59 damage to articular cartilage and invasion by fibrous tissue.
Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by a sequence of degenerative changes that can be described as the synovial membrane becomes inflamed and grows thicker, forming a mass called pannus. damage to articular cartilage and invasion by fibrous tissue. fibrous tissues become ossified and bones fuse together (bony ankylosis). all of the above

60 bursitis. sprain. dislocation. ankylosis.
When the articulating bones of a joint have been displaced and the joint is clearly deformed, the condition is called bursitis. sprain. dislocation. ankylosis.

61 Arthroscopy is a procedure used to examine the
heart. lungs. digestive organs. none of the above

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