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Chapter 9 *Lecture Outline

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1 Chapter 9 *Lecture Outline
*See separate FlexArt PowerPoint slides for all figures and tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 Chapter 9 Outline Articulations Fibrous Joints Cartilaginous Joints
Synovial Joints Selected Articulations in Depth Disease and Aging of the Joints Development of the Joints

3 Articulations Defined
An articulation, or joint, is: the place where a bone meets another bone cartilage teeth Articulations vary in stability and mobility


5 Joint Mobility vs. Stability
varies from immobile to wide range of motions Stability articular shape affects mobility and stability More mobile = less stable compare shoulder to skull

6 Relationship Between Joint Mobility and Joint Stability
Figure 9.1

7 Naming Joints Joints are usually named for the articulating bones
i.e., sternoclavicular and radioulnar joints


9 Classifying Joints Anatomically (by structure)
What exists between the bones? connective tissue vs. lubricant Physiologically (by function) How mobile (or stable) are the bones? stable vs. mobile

10 Structural Joint Classes
Fibrous bones held together by collagen fibers Cartilaginous bones held together by cartilage Synovial bones separated by fluid

11 Functional Joint Classes
Synarthroses immobile joints (most stable) Amphiarthroses slightly mobile joints Diarthroses freely mobile joints

12 Relationship of Joint Structure and Function Classes

13 Fibrous Joints Collagen-filled, no joint cavity Three specific types:
Gomphoses: teeth to maxilla and mandible Sutures: between skull bones Syndesmoses: between parallel bones (radius and ulna, tibia and fibula) Most immobile or only slightly mobile

14 Fibrous Joints Figure 9.2

15 Cartilaginous Joints Bones attached by cartilage No joint cavity
Two specific types: Synchondroses: bones joined by hyaline cartilage (usually immobile) Symphyses: bones joined by pad of fibrocartilage (slight mobility)

16 Cartilaginous Joints Figure 9.3

17 Synovial Joints Anatomy Articular capsule Joint cavity Synovial fluid
Articular cartilages Ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels Physiology: freely mobile (diarthroses)

18 Typical Synovial Joint
Figure 9.4

19 Articular Capsule Two layers
outer fibrous layer made of dense regular connective tissue strengthens joint inner synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid lubricates and nourishes articular cartilages absorbs shock during compression of the joint

20 Articular Cartilages Articular surfaces in synovial joints are covered by hyaline cartilage prevents bone-to-bone contact during compression of joint

21 Ligaments, Nerves, and Blood Vessels
Ligaments: connect bone to bone strengthen and reinforce capsule Nerves: signal (pain) when a joint is over stretched Blood vessels: nourish tissues in the joint

22 Synovial Joint

23 Synovial Accessories Synovial fluid-filled structures to reduce friction Bursae: sacs outside most synovial joints where ligaments, muscles, tendons, and/or bones rub Tendon sheaths: elongated bursae around tendons, particularly in confined areas (wrist and ankle) where tendons rub each other

24 Bursae and Tendon Sheaths
Figure 9.5

25 Synovial Joint Classes
Classified anatomically by shape of articulating surfaces Classified physiologically by number of movements allowed Uniaxial: bone moves in only one plane Biaxial: bone moves in two planes Multiaxial: bone moves in more than two planes

26 Synovial Joint Shapes In order of increasing movement, the six classes of synovial joint are: Plane joints: Intercarpal Hinge joints: Ulnar/Humerus Pivot joints: Atlas/Axis Condylar joints: Metacarpals Saddle joints: Pollex Ball-and-socket joints: Pectoral/Pelvic Girdle

27 Synovial Joint Shapes Figure 9.6

28 Synovial Joint Movements
Four types of motions: Gliding: Plane Joints Angular:Flexion/Extension/Abduction/Adduction/Circundaction Rotational:Rotation/pronation/Supination Special: Depression/Elevation/ retraction

29 Gliding Motion Articular surfaces sliding back-and-forth or side-to-side Occurs mainly in plane joints i.e., between carpals

30 Angular Motions An angle between bones changes
Flexion vs. extension, hyperextension Lateral flexion Abduction vs. adduction Circumduction

31 Flexion vs. Extension Enlarge art as much as possible Figure 9.7

32 Flexion vs. Extension Enlarge art as much as possible Figure 9.7

33 Lateral Flexion Figure 9.7

34 Abduction vs. Adduction
Figure 9.8

35 Abduction vs. Adduction
Figure 9.8

36 Circumduction Figure 9.9

37 Rotational Motions A bone turns along its longitudinal axis
alantoaxial joint turning back-and-forth in the “no” gesture limbs turning to and from median plane medial and lateral rotation pronation vs. supination

38 Rotation Figure 9.10

39 Medial and Lateral Rotation
Enlarge art as much as possible Figure 9.10

40 Pronation vs. Supination
Figure 9.10

41 Special Movements Occur only at specific joints
depression vs. elevation dorsiflexion vs. plantar flexion inversion vs. eversion protraction vs. retraction opposition

42 Depression vs. Elevation
Figure 9.11

43 Dorsiflexion vs. Plantar Flexion
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (b) Plantar flexion Dorsiflexion Figure 9.11 b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./ Photo by Jw Ramsey

44 Inversion vs. Eversion Figure 9.11

45 Protraction vs. Retraction
Figure 9.11

46 Opposition Figure 9.11


48 Selected Articulations
Joints of the axial skeleton temporomandibular joint intervertebral articulations sternoclavicular joint

49 Axial Skeleton Joints

50 Axial Skeleton Joints

51 Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)
Diarthrotic hinge between mandibular condyle and temporal bone with: articular disc ligaments sphenomandibular stylomandibular temporomandibular (lateral)

52 Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)
Figure 9.12

53 Intervertebral Articulations
Amphiarthroses between vertebral bodies: intervertebral discs with outer anulus fibrosus inner nucleus pulposus Diarthroses between superior and inferior articular processes with ligaments: anterior and posterior longitudinal, interspinous, supraspinous, ligamentum nuchae, ligamentum flavum

54 Intervertebral Articulations
Figure 9.13

55 Joints of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs

56 Joints of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs

57 Sternoclavicular Joint
Diarthrotic saddle between manubrium of sternum and sternal end of the clavicle ligaments anterior and posterior sternoclavicular costoclavicular interclavicular

58 Sternoclavicular Joint
Figure 9.14

59 Acromioclavicular Joint
Diarthrosis between acromial end of clavicle and acromion of scapula ligaments: acromioclavicular coracoclavicular

60 Acromioclavicular Joint
Figure 9.15

61 Glenohumeral Joint Diarthrotic ball-and-socket between head of humerus and glenoid cavity of scapula with: glenoid labrum ligaments: coracoacromial, coracohumeral, glenohumeral, transverse humeral muscles: rotator cuff (4) bursae: subacromial, subcoracoid, subdeltoid, and subscapular

62 Glenohumeral Joint Figure 9.15

63 Glenohumeral Joint Figure 9.15

64 Elbow Joint Diarthrotic hinge between humerus, and ulna and radius
ligaments: radial (lateral) collateral ulnar (medial) collateral anular

65 Elbow Joint Figure 9.16

66 Radiocarpal (Wrist) Joint
Diarthrotic condylar joint between: distal articular surface of radius and three proximal carpal bones scaphoid lunate triquetrum

67 Radiocarpal (Wrist) Joint
Figure 9.17

68 Joints of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Table 9.5 Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb Joints Joint Articulation Components Structural Classification Functional Classifi cation Description of Movement Sacroiliac Auricular surfaces of sacrum and ilia Synovial (plane) Diarthrosis Slight gliding; more movement during pregnancy and childbirth Sacroiliac Hip (coxal) Head of femur and acetabulum of os coxae Synovial (ball-and-socket) Diarthrosis Abduction, adduction, circumduction, extension, flexion, medial and lateral rotation of thigh Hip Pubic symphysis Pubic symphysis Two pubic bones Cartilaginous (symphysis) Amphiarthrosis Very slight movements; more movement during childbirth Knee Patellofemoral joint: Patella and patellar surface of femur Tibiofemoral joint: Condyles of femur and condyles of tibia Both synovial (acts as hinge) and synovial (plane) at patellofemoral joint; synovial (acts as hinge) at tibiofemoral joint1 Diarthrosis Extension, flexion, lateral rotation of leg in flexed position, slight medial rotation Superior joint: Head of fi bula and lateral condyle of tibia Inferior joint: Distal end of fi bula and fi bular notch of tibia Superior joint: Synovial (plane) Inferior joint: Fibrous (syndesmosis) Tibiofi bular Amphiarthrosis Slight rotation of fi bula during dorsiflexion of foot Patellofemoral (knee) Tibiofemoral (knee) Talocrural Tibiofibular (superior) Distal end of tibia and medial malleolus with talus Lateral malleolus of fi bula and talus Synovial (hinge) Diarthrosis Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion Intertarsal Between the tarsal bones Synovial (plane) Eversion and inversion of foot Diarthrosis Tarsometatarsal Synovial (plane) Three cuneiforms (tarsal bones), cuboid, and bases of five metatarsal bones Diarthrosis Slight gliding Tibiofibular (inferior) Talocrural Metatarsophalangeal (MP joints) Synovial (condylar) Abduction, adduction, circumduction, extension, and flexion of proximal phalanges Heads of metatarsals and bases of proximal phalanges Intertarsal Diarthrosis Tarsometatarsal Interphalangeal (IP joints) Heads of proximal and middle phalanges with bases of middle and distal phalanges, respectively Synovial (hinge) Metatarsophalangeal (MP) Interphalangeal (IP) Extension and flexion of phalanges Diarthrosis

69 Joints of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs

70 Hip (Coxal) Joint Diarthrotic ball-and-socket between head of femur and acetabulum of os coxae with: articular capsule with retinacular fibers ligaments: iliofemoral ischiofemoral pubofemoral ligament of head of femur

71 Hip (Coxal) Joint Insert Figure 9.18a,b,c and d Figure 9.18

72 Knee Joint Diarthrotic hinge between femur, tibia, and patella
Largest and most complex joint in body with: medial and lateral menisci ligaments: patellar fibular (lateral) collateral tibial (medial) collateral anterior and posterior cruciate (ACL and PCL)

73 Knee Joint Figure 9.19

74 Talocrural (Ankle) Joint
Diarthrotic hinge between distal ends of tibia and fibula and talus of tarsals ligaments: deltoid lateral anterior and posterior tibiofibular

75 Talocrural (Ankle) Joint
Figure 9.20

76 Talocrural (Ankle) Joint
Figure 9.20

77 Joints of the Foot Diarthroses: intertarsal: plane between tarsals
tarsometatarsal: plane between distal tarsal bones and metatarsals metatarsophalangeal (MP): condyle between metatarsal and proximal phalanges interphalangeal (IP): hinge between phalanges

78 Joints of the Foot Figure 9.21
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Interphalangeal (IP) joints Metatarsophalangeal (MP) joints I II III IV V Tarsometatarsal joints Cuneiform bones Intertarsal joints Navicular bone Cuboid bone Talus Figure 9.21 Calcaneus Right foot, superior view

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