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Chapter 9 *Lecture Outline Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. *See separate FlexArt PowerPoint.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 *Lecture Outline Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. *See separate FlexArt PowerPoint."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 *Lecture Outline Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. *See separate FlexArt PowerPoint slides for all figures and tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes.

2 Chapter 9 Outline Articulations Fibrous Joints Cartilaginous Joints Synovial Joints Selected Articulations in Depth Disease and Aging of the Joints Development of the Joints

3 Articulations Defined An articulation, or joint, is: –the place where a bone meets another bone cartilage teeth Articulations vary in stability and mobility


5 Joint Mobility vs. Stability Mobility –varies from immobile to wide range of motions Stability –articular shape affects mobility and stability More mobile = less stable –compare shoulder to skull

6 Relationship Between Joint Mobility and Joint Stability Figure 9.1

7 Naming Joints Joints are usually named for the articulating bones –i.e., sternoclavicular and radioulnar joints


9 Classifying Joints Anatomically (by structure) What exists between the bones? –connective tissue vs. lubricant Physiologically (by function) How mobile (or stable) are the bones? –stable vs. mobile

10 Structural Joint Classes Fibrous –bones held together by collagen fibers Cartilaginous –bones held together by cartilage Synovial –bones separated by fluid

11 Functional Joint Classes Synarthroses –immobile joints (most stable) Amphiarthroses –slightly mobile joints Diarthroses –freely mobile joints

12 Relationship of Joint Structure and Function Classes

13 Fibrous Joints Collagen-filled, no joint cavity Three specific types: –Gomphoses: teeth to maxilla and mandible –Sutures: between skull bones –Syndesmoses: between parallel bones (radius and ulna, tibia and fibula) Most immobile or only slightly mobile

14 Fibrous Joints Figure 9.2

15 Cartilaginous Joints Bones attached by cartilage No joint cavity Two specific types: –Synchondroses: bones joined by hyaline cartilage (usually immobile) –Symphyses: bones joined by pad of fibrocartilage (slight mobility)

16 Cartilaginous Joints Figure 9.3

17 Synovial Joints Anatomy –Articular capsule –Joint cavity –Synovial fluid –Articular cartilages –Ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels Physiology: freely mobile (diarthroses)

18 Typical Synovial Joint Figure 9.4

19 Articular Capsule Two layers –outer fibrous layer made of dense regular connective tissue strengthens joint –inner synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid lubricates and nourishes articular cartilages absorbs shock during compression of the joint

20 Articular Cartilages Articular surfaces in synovial joints are covered by hyaline cartilage –prevents bone-to-bone contact during compression of joint

21 Ligaments, Nerves, and Blood Vessels Ligaments: connect bone to bone –strengthen and reinforce capsule Nerves: signal (pain) when a joint is over stretched Blood vessels: nourish tissues in the joint

22 Synovial Joint

23 Synovial Accessories Synovial fluid-filled structures to reduce friction –Bursae: sacs outside most synovial joints where ligaments, muscles, tendons, and/or bones rub –Tendon sheaths: elongated bursae around tendons, particularly in confined areas (wrist and ankle) where tendons rub each other

24 Bursae and Tendon Sheaths Figure 9.5

25 Synovial Joint Classes Classified anatomically by shape of articulating surfaces Classified physiologically by number of movements allowed –Uniaxial: bone moves in only one plane –Biaxial: bone moves in two planes –Multiaxial: bone moves in more than two planes

26 Synovial Joint Shapes In order of increasing movement, the six classes of synovial joint are: –Plane joints: Intercarpal –Hinge joints: Ulnar/Humerus –Pivot joints: Atlas/Axis –Condylar joints: Metacarpals –Saddle joints: Pollex –Ball-and-socket joints: Pectoral/Pelvic Girdle

27 Synovial Joint Shapes Figure 9.6

28 Synovial Joint Movements Four types of motions: –Gliding: Plane Joints –Angular: Flexion/Extension/Abd uction/Adduction/Circundaction –Rotational: Rotation/pronation/ Supination –Special: Depression/Elevation/ retraction

29 Gliding Motion Articular surfaces sliding back-and-forth or side-to-side Occurs mainly in plane joints –i.e., between carpals

30 Angular Motions An angle between bones changes –Flexion vs. extension, hyperextension –Lateral flexion –Abduction vs. adduction –Circumduction

31 Flexion vs. Extension Figure 9.7 Enlarge art as much as possible

32 Flexion vs. Extension Figure 9.7 Enlarge art as much as possible

33 Lateral Flexion Figure 9.7

34 Abduction vs. Adduction Figure 9.8

35 Abduction vs. Adduction Figure 9.8

36 Circumduction Figure 9.9

37 Rotational Motions A bone turns along its longitudinal axis –alantoaxial joint turning back-and- forth in the “no” gesture –limbs turning to and from median plane medial and lateral rotation pronation vs. supination

38 Rotation Figure 9.10

39 Medial and Lateral Rotation Figure 9.10 Enlarge art as much as possible

40 Pronation vs. Supination Figure 9.10

41 Special Movements Occur only at specific joints –depression vs. elevation –dorsiflexion vs. plantar flexion –inversion vs. eversion –protraction vs. retraction –opposition

42 Depression vs. Elevation Figure 9.11

43 Dorsiflexion vs. Plantar Flexion Figure 9.11 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (b) Plantar flexion Dorsiflexion b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./ Photo by Jw Ramsey

44 Inversion vs. Eversion Figure 9.11

45 Protraction vs. Retraction Figure 9.11

46 Opposition Figure 9.11


48 Selected Articulations Joints of the axial skeleton –temporomandibular joint –intervertebral articulations –sternoclavicular joint

49 Axial Skeleton Joints


51 Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Diarthrotic hinge between mandibular condyle and temporal bone with: –articular disc –ligaments sphenomandibular stylomandibular temporomandibular (lateral)

52 Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Figure 9.12

53 Intervertebral Articulations Amphiarthroses between vertebral bodies: intervertebral discs with –outer anulus fibrosus –inner nucleus pulposus Diarthroses between superior and inferior articular processes with –ligaments: anterior and posterior longitudinal, interspinous, supraspinous, ligamentum nuchae, ligamentum flavum

54 Intervertebral Articulations Figure 9.13

55 Joints of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs


57 Sternoclavicular Joint Diarthrotic saddle between manubrium of sternum and sternal end of the clavicle –ligaments anterior and posterior sternoclavicular costoclavicular interclavicular

58 Sternoclavicular Joint Figure 9.14

59 Acromioclavicular Joint Diarthrosis between acromial end of clavicle and acromion of scapula –ligaments: acromioclavicular coracoclavicular

60 Acromioclavicular Joint Figure 9.15

61 Glenohumeral Joint Diarthrotic ball-and-socket between head of humerus and glenoid cavity of scapula –with: glenoid labrum –ligaments: coracoacromial, coracohumeral, glenohumeral, transverse humeral –muscles: rotator cuff (4) –bursae: subacromial, subcoracoid, subdeltoid, and subscapular

62 Glenohumeral Joint Figure 9.15

63 Glenohumeral Joint Figure 9.15

64 Elbow Joint Diarthrotic hinge between humerus, and ulna and radius –ligaments: radial (lateral) collateral ulnar (medial) collateral anular

65 Elbow Joint Figure 9.16

66 Radiocarpal (Wrist) Joint Diarthrotic condylar joint between: –distal articular surface of radius and –three proximal carpal bones scaphoid lunate triquetrum

67 Radiocarpal (Wrist) Joint Figure 9.17

68 Joints of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Synovial (hinge)Heads of proximal and middle phalanges with bases of middle and distal phalanges, respectively Interphalangeal (IP joints) Interphalangeal (IP) Metatarsophalangeal (MP) Tarsometatarsal Metatarsophalangeal (MP joints) Intertarsal Talocrural Tibiofibular (inferior) Tarsometatarsal Intertarsal Synovial (condylar) Synovial (plane) Synovial (hinge) Superior joint: Synovial (plane) Inferior joint: Fibrous (syndesmosis) Both synovial (acts as hinge) and synovial (plane) at patellofemoral joint; synovial (acts as hinge) at tibiofemoral joint 1 Cartilaginous (symphysis) Synovial (ball-and-socket) Synovial (plane) Structural ClassificationJoint Articulation Components Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb Joints Auricular surfaces of sacrum and ilia Head of femur and acetabulum of os coxae Two pubic bones Sacroiliac Hip (coxal) Pubic symphysis Patellofemoral joint: Patella and patellar surface of femur Tibiofemoral joint: Condyles of femur and condyles of tibia Superior joint: Head of fi bula and lateral condyle of tibia Inferior joint: Distal end of fi bula and fi bular notch of tibia Distal end of tibia and medial malleolus with talus Lateral malleolus of fi bula and talus Between the tarsal bones Three cuneiforms (tarsal bones), cuboid, and bases of five metatarsal bones Heads of metatarsals and bases of proximal phalanges Knee Tibiofi bular Talocrural Patellofemoral (knee) Tibiofibular (superior) Tibiofemoral (knee) Sacroiliac Hip Pubic symphysis Table 9.5 Extension and flexion of phalanges Slight gliding Eversion and inversion of foot Slight gliding; more movement during pregnancy and childbirth Very slight movements; more movement during childbirth Description of Movement Extension, flexion, lateral rotation of leg in flexed position, slight medial rotation Slight rotation of fi bula during dorsiflexion of foot Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion Abduction, adduction, circumduction, extension, and flexion of proximal phalanges Diarthrosis Amphiarthrosis Diarthrosis Amphiarthrosis Diarthrosis Functional Classifi cation Abduction, adduction, circumduction, extension, flexion, medial and lateral rotation of thigh

69 Joints of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs

70 Hip (Coxal) Joint Diarthrotic ball-and-socket between head of femur and acetabulum of os coxae with: –articular capsule with retinacular fibers –ligaments: iliofemoral ischiofemoral pubofemoral ligament of head of femur

71 Hip (Coxal) Joint Insert Figure 9.18a,b,c and d Figure 9.18

72 Knee Joint Diarthrotic hinge between femur, tibia, and patella Largest and most complex joint in body with: –medial and lateral menisci –ligaments: patellar fibular (lateral) collateral tibial (medial) collateral anterior and posterior cruciate (ACL and PCL)

73 Knee Joint Figure 9.19

74 Talocrural (Ankle) Joint Diarthrotic hinge between distal ends of tibia and fibula and talus of tarsals –ligaments: deltoid lateral anterior and posterior tibiofibular

75 Talocrural (Ankle) Joint Figure 9.20

76 Talocrural (Ankle) Joint Figure 9.20

77 Joints of the Foot Diarthroses: –intertarsal: plane between tarsals –tarsometatarsal: plane between distal tarsal bones and metatarsals –metatarsophalangeal (MP): condyle between metatarsal and proximal phalanges –interphalangeal (IP): hinge between phalanges

78 Joints of the Foot Figure 9.21 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. I V Interphalangeal (IP) joints Cuboid bone Metatarsophalangeal (MP) joints Tarsometatarsal joints Cuneiform bones Intertarsal joints Navicular bone Talus Right foot, superior view Calcaneus IV III II

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