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Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Chapter 3 Meat and Bones The Musculoskeletal System
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Musculoskeletal System The musculoskeletal system consists of two systems that work together to support the body and allow for movement of the animal –the skeletal system = bones, joints, cartilage, and various connective tissues –the muscular system = muscles and various connective tissues
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Skeletal System The skeletal system consists of bone, joints, tendons, ligaments, and cartilage Bones –form the framework that supports and protects the body –aid in body movement –function to form blood cells –store and release minerals like calcium Joints –aid in movement of the body Cartilage –protects the ends of bones where they contact each other
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Bones Bone is one of the hardest tissues in the body Combining forms for bone are –oste/o –oss/e –oss/i Bones start as cartilage and fibrous membranes that harden into bone before birth –The formation of bone from fibrous tissue is known as ossification
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Types of Bones Cortical bone is the hard, dense, strong bone that forms the outer layer of bone –cortex means bark or shell in Latin –also known as compact bone Cancellous bone is the lighter, less strong bone that is found in the ends and inner portions of long bone –cancellous = latticework in Latin –also known as spongy bone
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Long Bone Terms Long bones consist of a shaft, two ends, and a marrow cavity Examples of long bones are the femur, humerus, tibia, and radius Bone word parts –epi- = above –physis = growth –dia- = between –peri- = surrounding –-um = structure –endo- = within or inner –meta- = beyond
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Cartilage Cartilage is a form of connective tissue that is more elastic than bone The combining form for cartilage is chondr/o Articular cartilage is a type of cartilage that covers the joint surfaces of bone The meniscus is a curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints –provides additional cushioning
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Joints Joints are connections between bones Joints are also known as articulations The combining form for joint is arthr/o Joints are classified based on their degree of movement –synarthroses immovable –amphiarthroses slightly movable –diathroses freely movable
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Ligaments and Tendons Ligaments are bands of fibrous connective tissue that connect one bone to another –ligament/o is the combining form for ligament Tendons are bands of fibrous connective tissue that connect muscle to bone –ten/o, tend/o, and tendin/o are combining forms for tendon
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Skeleton The skeleton is divided into two parts: –The axial skeleton protects the major organs of the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory systems The axial skeleton consists of the skull, hyoid bones, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum –The appendicular skeleton is the framework that consists of the extremities, shoulder, and pelvic girdle Appen means to add or hang The appendicular skeleton includes the bones of the front and hind limbs
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Axial Skeleton The cranium is the portion of the skull that encloses the brain The combining form for skull is crani/o The skull also has air- or fluid-filled spaces called sinuses
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Axial Skeleton The vertebral column supports the head and body and provides protection for the spinal cord The vertebral column is comprised of individual bones called vertebra –The combining forms for vertebra are spondyl/o and vertebr/o –Vertebrae is the plural form
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Parts of a Vertebra Vertebrae are divided into parts: –body –arch –lamina –vertebral foramen –processes spinous process transverse process articular process
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Other Axial Skeleton Parts Ribs –Combining form is cost/o Sternum –manubrium –body –xiphoid process
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Appendicular Skeleton Front limb –scapula –clavicle –humerus –radius –ulna –carpal bones –metacarpal bones cannon bone in livestock –phalanges
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Appendicular Skeleton Phalanx names: –P1 = long pastern bone in livestock –P2 = short pastern bone in livestock –P3 = coffin bone in livestock –P3 in small animals may be called the claw or nail Combining form for claw or nail is onych/o
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Appendicular Skeleton Hind limb –pelvis –femur –patella –tibia –fibula –tarsal bones –metatarsal bones cannon bone in livestock –phalanges
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Pelvic Bones The bones of the pelvis include –ilium –ischium –pubis –acetabulum— the bony part of the socket joint
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Muscular System Muscles are organs that contract to produce movement Muscles are responsible for –ambulation –control of organs and tissues –pumping of blood –generation of heat
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Muscles Muscles are made up of long, slender cells called muscle fibers Each muscle consists of a group of muscle fibers in a fibrous sheath –my/o is the combining form for muscle –fibr/o and fibros/o are combining forms for fibrous tissue
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Structures Associated with Muscles Fascia is a sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscles –fasci/o and fasc/i are combining forms for fascia Tendons are fibrous connective tissues that connect muscle to bone –tend/o, tendin/o, and ten/o are combining forms for tendon Aponeurosis is a fibrous sheet that gives attachment to muscular fibers and serves as a means of origin and insertion of a flat muscle –aponeur/o is the combining form for aponeurosis
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Muscle Terms kinesio/o and -kinesis mean movement –Kinesiology is the study of movement anti- = against agon = struggle –Antagonistic muscles work against or opposite other muscles syn = together erg = work –Synergist muscles work with other muscles to produce movement
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Naming Muscles Muscle movement terms –abductor –adductor –flexor –extensor –levator –depressor –rotator –supinator –pronator Muscle location terms –pectoral –epaxial –intercostal –infraspinatus
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Naming Muscles Muscle fiber directional terms –rectus –oblique –transverse –sphincter Number of muscle division terms –biceps –triceps –quadriceps Muscle size terms –minimus –maximus –major –minor –latissimus –longissimus Muscle shape terms –deltoid –quadratus –rhomboideus
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Medical Terms for the Musculoskeletal System Additional terms for musculoskeletal system tests, pathology, and procedures can be found in the text Review the Flash! CD program to make sure you understand these terms
Lesson 1 How is it possible for you to perform motions such as stretching and rolling your shoulders? The interaction of bones and muscles allows you.
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