6Elbow Joint Type Articulation Hinge type of synovial joint B/W the trochlea & capitulum of humerus& trochlear notch of ulna & head of the radius
7Fibrous Capsule Synovial membrane Ligaments Lateral ligament The fibrous capsule completely encloses the joint. Its anterior and posterior parts are thin and weak, but collateral ligaments strengthen its sides.The fibrous capsule is attached to the proximal margins of the coronoid and radial fossae anteriorly, but not quite to the superior limit of the olecranon fossa posteriorly.Distally the fibrous capsule is attached to the margins of the trochlear notch, the anterior border of the coronoid process, and the annular ligament.Synovial membraneLines the internal surface of the fibrous capsuleLigamentsLateral ligamentMedial ligament
8Lateral ligament (radial collateral) Is triangular ligament, its apex is attached proximally to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and its base blends with the annular ligament of the radius
9Medial ligament (ulnar collateral) It is composed of anterior and posterior bands (parts), which are connected by a thinner, relatively weak oblique band.Its apex is attached to the medial epicondyle of the humerus.The strong cord-like anterior part is attached to the tubercle on the coronoid process of the ulna and the weaker fan-like posterior part is attached to the medial edge of the olecranon.The ulnar nerve passes posterior to the medial epicondyle and is closely applied to the ulnar collateral ligament.
10Movements & muscles of the Elbow joint This joint can be flexed or extendedFlexion is produced by the brachialis and brachioradialis muscles, but the main flexor is the brachialis. When the forearm is supinated, the biceps brachii muscle also flexes this joint; when it is pronated, the pronator teres does.The main extensor of the elbow joint is the triceps brachii muscle.Gravity and the anconeus muscle assist with this movement.
12Relations of the elbow joint Nerve supplyThe joint is supplied by the branches of median, ulnar, musculocutaneous & radial nervesRelations of the elbow jointAnteriorly: Brachialis, tendon of biceps, median nerve & brachial arteryPosteriorly: Triceps a small bursaMedially: Ulnar nerveLaterally: Common extensor tendon & supinator
14Radioulnar JointThe radius and ulna articulate with each other at their proximal and distal ends at synovial joints, called the proximal and distal radioulnar joints. These articulations are the pivot type of synovial joint that produces pronation and supination.
15Proximal radioulnar joint ArticulationThe radial head articulates with the radial notch of the ulna.The head of the radius is held in position by the strong annular (annular) ligament,Fibrous CapsuleThe fibrous capsule enclosing the joint is continuous with the fibrous capsule of the elbow jointSynovial membraneThe deep surface of the annular ligament is lined with synovial membrane. Continues above with elbow jointLigamentsThe annular ligament is attached to anterior & posterior margins of radial notch. It is continuous with the capsule of the elbow joint. It is not attached to radius
17Nerve supply Movements Relations The joint is supplied by the branches of median, ulnar, musculocutaneous & radial nervesMovementspronation and supination of the forearmRelationsAnteriorly: Supinator & radial nervePosteriorly: Supinator & common extensor tendonMedially: Ulnar nerveLaterally: Common extensor tendon & supinator
18Distal radioulnar joint TypePivot type of synovial jointArticulationHead of the ulna & ulnar notch of radiusCapsuleThe capsule encloses the joint but deficient superiorlyLigamentsWeak anterior & posterior ligaments strengthen the jointArticular discTriangular fibrocartilaginous, separates the cavity of the distal radioulnar joint from the cavity of the wrist joint. Unites the radius & ulnaSynovial membraneLines the capsuleNerve supplyAnterior interosseous & deep branch of radial nervesMovementSupination & pronation
21Wrist joint (radiocarpal) TypeIt is a condyloid type of synovial jointArticulationdistal end of the radius and the articular disc above & scaphoid, lunate & triquetral bones belowCapsuleThe capsule encloses the joint & is attached above to the distal ends of radius & ulna below to the proximal row of carpal bonesLigamentsAnterior & posterior ligaments strengthen the capsule the medial is attached to the styloid process of ulna & to the triquetral bone. The lateral ligament is attached to the styloid process of radius & to the scaphoid bone
23Cont. Wrist joint (radiocarpal) Synovial membraneLines the capsule & attached to the margins of the articular surfaces. The joint cavity does not communicate with that of distal radioulnar joint or with the joint cavities of intercarpal jointsNerve supplyAnterior interosseous & deep branch of radial nervesMovementThe movements of adduction, abduction, flexion, extension and circumduction are possible.Rotation of the wrist joint is impossible because the articular surfaces are ellipsoid in shape; however, pronation and supination of the hand compensate for the absence of this movement
24Fractures of the wrist (e. g Fractures of the wrist (e.g., Colles' fracture) involving the distal end of the radius are the most common type of fracture in persons over 50 years of age