Presentation on theme: "The Joints of the Skeleton System"— Presentation transcript:
1The Joints of the Skeleton System Primarily Synovial Joints
2JOINTSJoints or articulations are functional junction between bones…or the site where two bones meet.They bind parts of the skeletal system, make possible bone growth, permit parts of the skeleton to change shape during childbirth, and enable the body to move in response to skeletal muscle contractions.
3JOINTSJoints can also be grouped according to the degree of movement possible at the bony junction.Synarthrotic – Immovable jointsAmphiarthrotic- Slightly moveableDiarthrotic- Freely movable.
4JOINTS Three general groups are: Fibrous joints Cartilaginous Joints Joints vary considerably in structure and functionHowever, they can be classified by the type of tissue that binds the bones at each junction.Three general groups are:Fibrous jointsCartilaginous JointsSynovial Joints
5Fibrous JointsFibrous Joints- are so named because of the fibrous tissue that holds them togetherIn a fibrous joint there is no joint cavity present.Most fibrous joints are immovable.They lie between bones that closely contact one another.
6Fibrous Joints Three types of fibrous joints: Syndesmosis-Distal end of the tibia and fibulaSuture- only between flat bones in the skullGomphosis- root of a tooth to the jawbone
7Cartilaginous JointsCartilaginous Joints- Hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage connect the bones of this joint.Two Types are:Synchondrosis (the articulation between the first rib and the manubrum)Symphysis (the smyphiysis pubis in the pelvis)
10SYNOVIAL JOINTSMost joints of the skeletal system are synovial joints, and because they allow free movement, they are diarthrotic.These joints are more complex structurally than fibrous or cartilaginous joints.
11SYNOVIAL JOINTS Synovial Joint have five distinguishing features. Articular Cartilage is present at the ends of the opposing bonesJoint Cavity (synovial) is present. This is really just potential space that contains fluid.Articular capsule (aka joint capsule). This encloses the joint cavity.Synovial Fluid- is present and occupies the space within the joint capsule.Reinforcing Ligaments – Synovial joints are reinforced and strengthened by a number of bandlike ligaments.
12Bursae and Tendon Sheaths Not strictly associated with synovial joints but are often found associated with them.Bursae are flattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane and containing a thin film of synovial fluid.Tendon Sheath is essentially an elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon subjected to friction.
15Ball and SocketThe Ball and Socket joint consists of a bone with a globular or slightly egg- shaped head the articulates with the cup-shaped cavity of another.Such joint allows a wider range of motion than does any other kind.Permitting movements in all planes, as well as rotation movement around a central axis.
16Ball and SocketExamples: Hip and Shoulder contain joints of this type.
17Condyloid JointCondyloid joint, the oval condyle of one bone fits into the elliptical cavity of another bones.This type of joints permits a variety of movements in different planes; rotational movement, however,is NOT possible.
18Condyloid JointCondyloid Joint exists between the metacarpals and the phalanges.And the radiocarpal (wrist) joints.
19GLIDING JOINTS (aka Plane Joints) The articulating surfaces of gliding joints are nearly flat or slightly curved.These joints allow sliding or back-and-forth motion and twisting movements.
20GLIDING JOINTS (aka Plane Joints) Most of the joints within the wrist and ankle.The articular processes of adjacent vertebrae.Joints formed by ribs 2-7 connecting the sternum are also gliding joints.
21HINGE JOINTIn a hinge joint, the convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another.Such a joint resembles the hinge of a door in that it permits movement in one plane only.
22HINGE JOINTThe elbow and the joints of the phalanges.
23PIVOT JOINTIn a pivot joint, the cylindrical surface on one bone rotates within a ring formed on bone and fibrous tissue of a ligament.Movement at such a joint is limited to rotation around a central axis.
24PIVOT JOINTThe joint between the proximal ends of the radius and the ulna.A pivot joint functions in the neck as the head turns from side to side.
25SADDLE JOINTA saddle joint forms between bones whose articulating surfaces have both concave and convex regions. The surface on one bone fits the complementary surface of another.This physical relationship permits a variety of movements, mainly in two planes.
26SADDLE JOINTThe joint between the carpal and the metacarpal of the thumb.
27Movements Allowed by Synovial Joints Every skeletal muscle of the body is attached to bone or other connective tissue structures at no fewer than two pointsThe muscles origin is attached to the immovable ( or less moveable ) bone.Its other end, the insertion, is attached to the moveable bone.
28Gliding MovementsAKA as translation, are the simplest joint movements.Back and forth or side to side!
29Angular MovementsAngular Movements increase or decrease an angle between two bones.
30FlexionFlexion- Bending movement, that decreases the angel of the joint and bring the articulating bones closer togetherEx: bending the head forward on the chest; bending the knee from a straight to an angled position.
31ExtensionExtension- opposite of flexion, that increases the angel of the joint and brings the articulating bones farther apart.Ex: Straightening a flexed
32HyperextensionHyperextension- Bending part of the body past its straight upright position.
33Abduction/AdductionAdduction- Moving a part toward the midline. (returning into the side of the body)Abduction- Moving a part away from the body.
34CircumductionCircumduction- - Moving a limb so that it describes a cone in space.The quickest way to exercise the many muscles that move the hip and shoulder ball and socket joints..
35Dorsiflexion and Plantar Flexion of the Foot Dorsiflexion- Lifting the foot so that its superior surface approaches the shin.
36Dorsiflexion and Plantar Flexion of the Foot Plantar Flexion- depressing the foot or pointing the toes.
37Special MovementsSome movements do NOT fit into a specific category and occur only at a few joints.They are illustrated in the next few slides.
38Rotation Rotation- The turning of a bone around its own long axis. It is the only movement allowed between the C1 and C2 vertebraCommon at the hip and shoulder joint.
39Supination and Pronation Both of these refer to movement of the radius around the ulna.Supination meaning “turning backwards”..rotate the arm so the palm is facing anteriorlyPronation- meaning turning forward…rotate the arm so the palm is facing posteriorly.
41Inversion and Eversion Both of these refer to special movement of the foot.Inversion- the sole of the foot turns mediallyEversion- the sole faces laterally..
42Protraction and Retraction Nonangular anterior and posterior movements in a transverse plane.The mandible is protracted when you jut out your jaw.And retracted when you move it back to its original position.
43Elevation and Depression Elevate- lifting a body part superiorly. (shrugging your shoulders)Depression is moving the elevated part inferiorly.Chewing your food is alternately both elevation and depression.
44OppositionOpposition – found in the saddle joint between the metacarpal and the carpals.This is the action taken when you touch your thumb to the tips of the other fingers on the same hand..
45What type of movements do we have here? Abduction at the right hip, adduction at both shoulders.
46What type of movements do we have here? Flexion at the left kneeFlexion at the left hip,Extension at theright hip,Extension at the right knee.
47What type of movements do we have here? Flexion at both hipsAbduction at the shouldersExtension at the elbowsExtension at both knees.
48What type of movements do we have here? Flexion at both hips,Flexion at both knees,Extension at both elbows.
49What type of movements do we have here? Rotation / extension at the hips.
50What type of movements do we have here? Flexion at both knees,Adduction at theshoulders
51What type of movements do we have here? Abduction at both hips.
52What type of movements do we have here? Flexion / rotation at the shoulder.
53The KneeThe knee joint is the largest and most complex joint in the body.It allows flexion, extension, and some rotation.It is actually composed of 3 separate joints.
54The KneeBe able to identify the ACL, PCL, meniscus, all three bursa sacs, and the femur, tibia, and patella.YOU NEED TO DRAW COLOR AND LABEL THE KNEE…you will have to label this on a test. Please add this to the back side of your first drawing. Due at the end of class today!!!Pg 266 (a)
57You need to know the following joints. What type of joints will you find here? Both structural and functional (or movements)SkullIntervertebralSternocostal (ribs 1-7)ShoulderElbowRadioulnar (proximal and distal)WristIntercarpalCarpometacarpal
58You need to know the following joints. What type of joints will you find here? Both structural and functional (or movements)KnuckleFingerPubic SymphysisHipKneeTibiofibularAnkleIntertarsalTarsometatarsalMetatarsolphalangeal
59When your Joints hurt!!Usually we don’t think about joints until we have a problem and they begin to hurt us.This can be caused by trauma, inflammation, and/or arthritis.
60Sprains!!Sprain- the ligaments reinforcing a joint are stretched or torn.Lumbar region of the spine, ankle and knee are common.Ligaments heal very slowly because they are poorly vascularized.Cartilage is avascular and it rarely can obtain sufficient nourishment to repair itself. It usually stays torn.
61Sprains!!Cartilage fragments can interfere with joint function by causing joints to lock or bind. So most sports physicians recommend that the central par of a damaged cartilage be removed.This can be done by arthroscopic surgery.
63DislocationA dislocation occurs when bones are forced out of alignment.Usually accompanies sprains, inflammation, and joint immobilizationRepeat dislocation of the same joint are common because the initial dislocation stretches the joint capsule and ligaments.
64Bursitis/TendonitisBursitis is inflammation of a bursa and is usually caused by a blow or frictionTendonitis is inflammation of tendon sheaths, typically caused by overuse.Treatments for both include…rest, ice, and anti-inflammatory drugs.
65Osteoarthritis It is the most common chronic arthritis It is chronic degenerative, often called “wear and tear” arthritis.Normal in the aging processThe normal joint use prompts the release of enzymes that break down articular cartilage.The result is softened, roughened, pitted, and eroded articular cartilages.
66Rheumatoid Arthritis It is not as common but still effects millions. Effect women more than men, usually between the ages of 40-50In early stages joint tenderness and stiffness are commonUsually effects small joints like wrist, ankles, fingers, and feet.Has both flare ups and remissions
67Rheumatoid ArthritisRA- is an autoimmune disease- a disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks its own tissue.Unknown cause but suspects include bacterium and viruses.Synovial fluid can increase
68Gouty ArthritisThe symptoms of gout are almost always acute and sudden, happening often at night with no warning. Symptoms in the affected joints may include:Intense painSwellingTendernessRednessOne of the oldest known diseases, gout was once considered "the disease of kings" because it was associated with those wealthy enough to overindulge in rich food and drink.In fact gout is a complex disorder that can affect anyone and does affect more than 2 million Americans.
69Gouty Arthritis Seen more often in men than women Gout is caused by high blood levels of uric acid, a waste formed from the breakdown of purines.If the body produces too much or eliminates too little uric acid, it builds up and forms needle-like crystals in a joint or the surrounding tissue,At the right is a photograph of crystals of monosodiumurate, which cause gout. They are identified by their shape and physical properties when seen under a microscopeSeen more often in men than womenGenetic factors are definitely implicated.Excess alcohol can promote excess uric acid..