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1 CSS/330: Critical Thinking and Computer Logic © 2004 University of Phoenix. University of Phoenix is a registered trademark of Apollo Group, Inc. in.

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Presentation on theme: "1 CSS/330: Critical Thinking and Computer Logic © 2004 University of Phoenix. University of Phoenix is a registered trademark of Apollo Group, Inc. in."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 CSS/330: Critical Thinking and Computer Logic © 2004 University of Phoenix. University of Phoenix is a registered trademark of Apollo Group, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries. (Week 3)

2 2 Strategies in Decision Making Week One: Week One:  Characteristics of Critical Thinking & Decision Making Week Two: Week Two:  Problem Identification & Formulation Week Three: Week Three:  Decision Making Week Four: Week Four:  Decision Implementation Week Five: Week Five:  Evaluation of Decision Outcomes & Processes

3 3 Decision Making Decision Making Tools and Techniques Decision Making Tools and Techniques Decision Making Styles Decision Making Styles Influences that affect Decision Making Influences that affect Decision Making

4 4 Tools and Techniques Affinity Diagram Affinity Diagram Benchmarking Benchmarking Cause-&-Effect (Fishbone) Diagram Cause-&-Effect (Fishbone) Diagram Criteria Matrix Criteria Matrix Decision Tree Decision Tree Flow Chart Flow Chart Gant Chart Gant Chart CSP Analysis CSP Analysis Venn Diagram Venn Diagram Bar Chart Bar Chart Brainstorming Brainstorming SWOT Analysis SWOT Analysis Cause-&-Effect Diagrams w/cards Cause-&-Effect Diagrams w/cards Cause Screening Cause Screening Check Lists Check Lists Scatter Diagrams Scatter Diagrams Statistical Process Control Statistical Process Control Pareto Charts Pareto Charts

5 5 Tool Categories Define and Measure Tools Define and Measure Tools Help frame the problem and quantify it.Help frame the problem and quantify it. Analysis/Decision Making Tools Analysis/Decision Making Tools Help think critically about a problem by providing ways to process data into useful information.Help think critically about a problem by providing ways to process data into useful information. Process Control Tools Process Control Tools Help monitor the performance of a process to ensure it stays on track.Help monitor the performance of a process to ensure it stays on track. Act as early warning systems for an out of control process.Act as early warning systems for an out of control process.

6 6 Define and Measure Tools Flow Diagram Flow Diagram Stakeholders Analysis Table Stakeholders Analysis Table Pareto chart Pareto chart Run Charts Run Charts

7 7 Tools: Flow Diagram

8 8 Tools: Stakeholder Analysis Validates team membership Validates team membership Understand the milieu in which the team operates Understand the milieu in which the team operates Build support for the project Build support for the project Understand who the process impacts Understand who the process impacts Minimize resistance to implementing solutions Minimize resistance to implementing solutions

9 9 Stakeholder Analysis Example Level of Commitment Sales Upstream Dept. Enthusiastic Helpful Compliant Hesitant Indifferent Uncooperative Opposed Hostile People or Groups X X X X= Present Commitment = Level Required Union

10 10 Named after Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto (circa 1906) Named after Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto (circa 1906) Separates the “vital few” from the “trivial many” Separates the “vital few” from the “trivial many” 80/20 rule: 80% of the problems can be attributed to only 20% of the causes80/20 rule: 80% of the problems can be attributed to only 20% of the causes Focus on the vital 20% to get the biggest impact (80%)Focus on the vital 20% to get the biggest impact (80%) Clearly illustrates where to focus improvement efforts Clearly illustrates where to focus improvement efforts Tools: Pareto Analysis

11 11 Pareto Analysis Example

12 12 Presents trends over time. Presents trends over time. Can link changes to order volume,operational changes, process adjustments, etc. Can link changes to order volume,operational changes, process adjustments, etc. Tools: Run Charts

13 13 Run Chart Example On-Time Shipment of Non-System Orders

14 14 Analysis Tools Cause and Effect Analysis (Fishbone diagram) Cause and Effect Analysis (Fishbone diagram) The Five Why’s The Five Why’s Flow Diagrams Flow Diagrams Solution Prioritization Matrix Solution Prioritization Matrix Cost Benefit (ROI) analysis Cost Benefit (ROI) analysis Gant Chart (Schedule) Gant Chart (Schedule) CSP Analysis CSP Analysis Brainstorming Brainstorming SWOT Analysis SWOT Analysis Venn Diagram Venn Diagram

15 15 A method for developing root cause theories A method for developing root cause theories Provides a structure to understand the relationship between potential causes. Provides a structure to understand the relationship between potential causes. Helps team members communicate within the team and across departments. Helps team members communicate within the team and across departments. Provides a framework for planning what data to collect. Provides a framework for planning what data to collect. Tools: Cause & Effect Analysis (Fish Bone Diagram)

16 16 Tools: Cause & Effect Analysis Milieu (or Environment) MachinesMethods MeasurementManpower (or People) Materials Problem or Effect “Fishbone” diagram with the “Six Ms”

17 17 Tools: Cause & Effect Analysis Machines Methods Measurement Manpower (or People) Materials Poor Print Quality Inks Paper Inconsistent Blanket Wash Negative Not Balanced Opticopy Neg. Fountain Solution Plates Overexposed Underexposed Blankets Roller Wash Rollers Original Negatives Not Checked pH Off Rollers Not Set Right Don’t Understand Process Not Enough Ink in Fountain Ink Adjust Fountain Too Often Adjust Fountain Water Balance Not Trained Don’t Care Attitude Two much variation in amount in fountain Densitometers Not Calibrated Press Not Capable Too Many Trip Offs Paper Won’t Feed Not Enough Dot Grain Specs. Not Clear Too Much of a Hurry Not Enough Time to Maintain Run Press Too Fast/Slow Front to Back (Sheet) Paper Moving on Back of Sheet Too Much Dot Gain Press Worn Layout of Form Customer Doesn’t Understand Variation Specs Wrong/ Impossible to Meet

18 18 “Peeling the onion” technique “Peeling the onion” technique A method to uncover root causes A method to uncover root causes What initially appears to be a “root cause” may really be a deeply embedded symptomWhat initially appears to be a “root cause” may really be a deeply embedded symptom Ask “Why?” five times Ask “Why?” five times Each response brings you closer to the root causeEach response brings you closer to the root cause Keep digging until you run out of answersKeep digging until you run out of answers Tools: The Five Whys “Separating true problems from their manifestations”

19 19 A video rental chain experienced an increasing degree of customer dissatisfaction. A simple questionnaire revealed the two most frequently mentioned reasons were long checkout lines and poor title selection The Five Whys Example WHY? Dissatisfied Customers Poor Title Selection Long Check-out Times Manual Invoicing Poor Employee Training Poor Customer Analysis No Computer System High Employee Turnover Poor Question Method Low Mgt Expertise Low Wages Poor Employee Training Low Mgt Expertise Low Wages High Employee Turnover

20 20 Process flow maps as analysis tools: Process flow maps as analysis tools: Activity flowchartActivity flowchart Displays complexity Displays complexity Shows decision points Shows decision points Identifies loops and bottlenecks Identifies loops and bottlenecks Deployment flowchartDeployment flowchart Highlights hand-off points between people and functions Highlights hand-off points between people and functions Clarifies roles or dependencies Clarifies roles or dependencies Value Stream MapValue Stream Map Examines value added, time and work in progress elements for each process step. Examines value added, time and work in progress elements for each process step. Tools: Flow Diagrams

21 21 Flow Diagrams Example Activity Flowchart: First Pass On-Time Shipment of Non-System Orders

22 22 Flow Diagram Example Activity Flowchart: In-Depth On-Time Shipment of Non-System Orders

23 23 Tools: Solution Prioritization Matrix Assists the team in evaluating solutions. Assists the team in evaluating solutions. Links possible solutions to the needs or constraints of the business/process environment. Links possible solutions to the needs or constraints of the business/process environment. Illustrates strengths and weakness of solutions Illustrates strengths and weakness of solutions Shows areas which may need attention during the implementation Shows areas which may need attention during the implementation

24 24 25D 21.5C 30.5B x (1.0) = 5 2 x (1.5) = 3 A Sum of weighted products (2.0)(1.5)(1.0)(1.0)(1.5) Solution Cost Effective High Impact Efficient use of Resources Acceptable across organization Easy to implemen t Criteria and Weights Solution Prioritization Matrix Example 3 x (1.0) = 3 2 x (1.0) = 2 5 x (1.0) = 5 5 x (1.5)=7.5 3 x (1.5)=4.5 4 x (1.5) = 6 4x (1.0) = 4 5 x (1.0) = 5 2 x (1.0) = 2 4x (1.0) = 4 5 x (1.5)=7.5 4 x (1.5) = 6 4 x (2.0) = 8 5 x (2.0)=10 2 x (2.0) = 4 3 x (2.0) = 6 Weighting Factor Solution Evaluation

25 Enables the team to estimate the real cost and benefits for alternatives under consideration Enables the team to estimate the real cost and benefits for alternatives under consideration Uncovers costs and benefits that aren’t immediately evident Uncovers costs and benefits that aren’t immediately evident Creates a financial case for adopting a specific implementation plan Creates a financial case for adopting a specific implementation plan Tools: Cost/Benefit Analysis (ROI Analysis) $ $ $ $ $ $

26 26 Tools: Cost/Benefit Analysis (ROI Analysis) Costs Machine Rewiring and installation Training Lost production Total cost Benefits Year 1 and ongoing Reduce failures by 10% Increase throughput Reduce set-up time Total benefits $ 750 $ 500 $ 250 $1,500 $1,000 $ 500 $ 250 $2,250 Comparing the costs and benefits over 2 years shows: CostsBenefitsProfit Year 1$2,250$1,500($ 750) Year 2$1,500$1,500 Total$2,250$3,000$ 750

27 27 Allows you to visualize the timing and complexity of a project. Allows you to visualize the timing and complexity of a project. Microsoft Project software. Microsoft Project software. Steps: Steps: Identify desired outcome and date of completion.Identify desired outcome and date of completion. Identify starting point.Identify starting point. Brainstorm all steps in between.Brainstorm all steps in between. Put in order and assign length of time for each step.Put in order and assign length of time for each step. Tools: Gantt Chart

28 28 Gantt Chart Example Microsoft Project Chart

29 29 Tools: CSP Analysis CostSchedulePerformance  Every project is controlled by these three variables  Any two can be freely changed but the third is dependent on the other two

30 30 Group exercise Group exercise Define the problemDefine the problem Collect ideas rapidly until there are no more contributions from the teamCollect ideas rapidly until there are no more contributions from the team Collect ideas, facts, opinions on cards, “Post It” notes or electronic boardCollect ideas, facts, opinions on cards, “Post It” notes or electronic board No critiques of ideas, just collection.No critiques of ideas, just collection. Everybody participates, no bench warmersEverybody participates, no bench warmers Arrange ideas in groups of thoughts / patternsArrange ideas in groups of thoughts / patterns Give each group a category nameGive each group a category name Be aware of group dynamics: Be aware of group dynamics: Peer pressure, boss-subordinate inhibitionsPeer pressure, boss-subordinate inhibitions Storming, Forming, Conforming, PerformingStorming, Forming, Conforming, Performing Variations: Variations: round robinround robin nominal group technique.nominal group technique. Tools: Brainstorming

31 31 1.Adding structure to a large or complicated issue 2.Breaking down a complicated issue into broad categories 3.Gaining agreement on an issue or situation One of the most widely used of the Japanese management and planning tools Brainstormed list of ideas Affinity diagram, in which ideas have been grouped into affinity sets

32 32 SWOT Analysis Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats SWOT Analysis is an effective method of identifying your Strengths and Weaknesses, and to examine the Opportunities and Threats you face. Often carrying out an analysis using the SWOT framework will be enough to reveal changes which can be usefully made.

33 33 SWOT Analysis: How to Strengths: Strengths: What are your advantages?What are your advantages? What do you do well?What do you do well? Consider this from your own point of view and from the point of view of the people you deal with. Don't be modest, be realistic. If you are having any difficulty with this, try writing down a list of your characteristics. Some of these will hopefully be strengths!Consider this from your own point of view and from the point of view of the people you deal with. Don't be modest, be realistic. If you are having any difficulty with this, try writing down a list of your characteristics. Some of these will hopefully be strengths! Weaknesses: Weaknesses: What could be improved?What could be improved? What is done badly?What is done badly? What should be avoided?What should be avoided? Again this should be considered from an internal and external basis - do other people perceive weaknesses that you don't see? Do your competitors do any better? It is best to be realistic now, and face any unpleasant truths as soon as possible.Again this should be considered from an internal and external basis - do other people perceive weaknesses that you don't see? Do your competitors do any better? It is best to be realistic now, and face any unpleasant truths as soon as possible.

34 34 SWOT Analysis: How to Opportunities Where are the good chances facing you? What are the interesting trends? Useful opportunities can come from such things as: Changes in technology and markets on both a broad and narrow scale Changes in government policy related to your field Changes in social patterns, population profiles, lifestyle changes, etc. Local Events Threats What obstacles do you face? What is your competition doing? Are the required specifications for your job, products or services changing? Is changing technology threatening your position? Do you have bad debt or cash-flow problems? Carrying out this analysis is will often be illuminating - both in terms of pointing out what needs to be done, and in putting problems into perspective.

35 35 SWOT Analysis American Vs. Foreign cars American Vs. Foreign cars

36 36 Tool: Venn Diagram Answer what part of the diagram represents each of the groups below: Answer what part of the diagram represents each of the groups below: 1. Voters registered as Democrat and Republican 2. Voters under 25 and not registered as either Democrat or Republican 3. Voters under 25 that are registered both as Democrat and Republican 4. Voters over 25 that are registered only as Democrat Democrat Registered Voters under 25 Republican

37 37 Gantt Chart SSPG–pgs Gantt Chart SSPG–pgs FMEA SSPG–pgs26-27 FMEA SSPG–pgs26-27 Planning Grid SSPG–pgs Planning Grid SSPG–pgs Brainstorming SSPG–pgs96-98 Brainstorming SSPG–pgs96-98 Consensus Decision Making SSPG–pgs Consensus Decision Making SSPG–pgs Flow Diagrams SSPG–pgs Flow Diagrams SSPG–pgs Solution Prioritization Matrix SSPG–pgs Solution Prioritization Matrix SSPG–pgs Run Chart SSPG–pgs57-62 Run Chart SSPG–pgs57-62 Pareto Chart SSPG–pgs83-86 Pareto Chart SSPG–pgs83-86 Frequency Plot SSPG–pgs70-82 Frequency Plot SSPG–pgs70-82 Helpful Tools Summary Rath & Strong’s Six Sigma Pocket Guide

38 38 Process Control Tools Quality control Chart Quality control Chart Statistical Process Control Chart Statistical Process Control Chart Advanced/Special Statistical Methods Advanced/Special Statistical Methods Design of ExperimentsDesign of Experiments Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) OthersOthers

39 39 Tool: QC Process Chart Corrective Actions Indicators Process Step Alert Process Engineer immediately; organize investigation. Alert Process Engineer immediately; organize investigation. If more than 1 per order, stop process, contact Packaging Engineer. If more than 1 per order, stop process, contact Packaging Engineer. Plot time on each order; should be < 2 hours; check for special causes. Plot time on each order; should be < 2 hours; check for special causes. Count errors. Count errors. ACT CHECK PLAN/DO

40 40 Provides a record of how the process is performing Provides a record of how the process is performing Objective way to determine if the process is stableObjective way to determine if the process is stable Differentiates between natural variation and assignable causesDifferentiates between natural variation and assignable causes Catches process changes before they become problems Catches process changes before they become problems Focuses attention on monitoring process variation over time. Focuses attention on monitoring process variation over time. See your local black belt for assistance. See your local black belt for assistance. Tools: SPC Control Chart

41 41 SPC Control Chart Example Ground Grids Control Chart (+/- 3 sigma) Dome Height UCL LCL Mean

42 42 TOOLS END TOOLS END

43 43 Decision Making Styles Autocratic Approach Autocratic Approach Consultative Approach Consultative Approach Team Approach Team Approach Democratic Democratic

44 44 DECISION MAKING STYLES CONT’D Autocratic Leader maintains total control and ownership of decision.Leader maintains total control and ownership of decision. Advantages:Advantages: Fast decision Fast decision Personal responsibility Personal responsibility Good in emergencies Good in emergencies Disadvantages:Disadvantages: No buy-in from the group No buy-in from the group Dissent among the ranks Dissent among the ranks

45 45 DECISION MAKING STYLES CONT’D Consultative (Participative) Leader maintains control of the decision. Leader seeks and encourages input from the group. Advantages: Personal responsibility Buy-in from the group (if decision is appears good) Disadvantages: Time consuming decision process Backfire if leader does not listen to input

46 46 DECISION MAKING STYLES CONT’D Team (Consensus) Team (Consensus) Leader gives up control of decision.Leader gives up control of decision. The group makes the decision after seeking total agreement and buy-in.The group makes the decision after seeking total agreement and buy-in. Advantages:Advantages: Group commitment Group commitment Group responsibility Group responsibility A more quality decision is reached based on diversity A more quality decision is reached based on diversity Disadvantages:Disadvantages: Very time consuming Very time consuming Requires high level of organization Requires high level of organization Takes practice Takes practice Can revert to democratic if total agreement is not achieved. Can revert to democratic if total agreement is not achieved.

47 47 DECISION MAKING STYLES Democratic – Democratic – Leader gives up ownership by allowing the group to vote.Leader gives up ownership by allowing the group to vote. Advantage:Advantage: Fairly fast decisions Fairly fast decisions Group participation Group participation Disadvantage:Disadvantage: Neither the leader nor the group accept responsibility. Neither the leader nor the group accept responsibility.

48 48 Management Decision Making Model Crisis Situation "The building is on Fire!" Autocratic Approach Routine SituationKnowledge Situation Team Approach Individual Decision MakingGroup Decision Making Need for Commitment Time Pressure “I’ve seen this before, or something like it.” “I don’t know what the problem is or understand the issues” Consultative Approach

49 49 GUIDELINES FOR SUCCESSFUL DECISION MAKING Ensure a CHAMPION – a responsible leader should manage the decision making process. Ensure a CHAMPION – a responsible leader should manage the decision making process. SEEK UNDERSTANDING – probe through signals and symptoms to reach the root cause. SEEK UNDERSTANDING – probe through signals and symptoms to reach the root cause. ESTABLISH AN OBJECTIVE – make decisions based on objective, not just a “first” solution. Analyze “trade-offs”. ESTABLISH AN OBJECTIVE – make decisions based on objective, not just a “first” solution. Analyze “trade-offs”. USE CREATIVITY AND DIPLOMACY – develop diverse ideas, avoid fallacies. USE CREATIVITY AND DIPLOMACY – develop diverse ideas, avoid fallacies. IDENTIFY MULTIPLE OPTIONS – reviewing competing options makes for a better choice. IDENTIFY MULTIPLE OPTIONS – reviewing competing options makes for a better choice. IDENTIFY BARRIERS – seek participation to get buy-in. IDENTIFY BARRIERS – seek participation to get buy-in.

50 50 Influences on Decision Making Contextual Factors Contextual Factors Urgency Urgency Importance Importance Constraints Constraints Resource Availability Resource Availability Political Support Political Support Personalities Personalities Diversity Diversity Globalization Globalization Ethics Ethics Media Media

51 51 Class Activity: Count the F’s in this sentence FOULED UP FILES ARE THE RESULT OF FOOLISH NEGLECT AND FINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF MANY YEARS. Call out how many - let’s see who’s right first

52 52 Solution to Decision Exercise Solution: Which decision was faster to make? Which was more accurate?

53 53 Consensus Exercise Directions: Read the story below and record the appropriate response on the attached answer sheet for the eleven statements that follow it. Your response options are ‘T’ for true, ‘F’ for false, and ‘?’ for don’t know. * Read carefully and focus on what you know and don’t know

54 54 Consensus Exercise (cont.) The story … A businessman had just turned off the lights in the store when a man appeared and demanded money. The owner opened a cash register. The contents of the cash register were scooped up, and the man sped away. A member of the police force was notified promptly University Associates, Inc. San Diego, CA

55 55 Consensus Exercise (cont.) 1. A man appeared after the owner had turned off his store lights. 2. The robber was a man. 3. The man did not demand money. 4. The man who opened the cash register was the owner. 5. The store owner scooped up the contents of the cash register and ran away. 6. Someone opened a cash register. 7. After the man who demanded the money scooped up the contents of the cash. register, he ran away. 8. While the cash register contained money, the story does not state how much. 9. The robber demanded money. 10. The story concerns a series of events in which only three persons are referred to: The owner of the store, a man who demanded money, and a member of the police force. 11. The following events in the story are true: Someone demanded money, a cash register was opened, its contents were scooped up, and a man dashed out of the store.

56 56 Consensus Exercise Solution

57 57 Problem Solving Models PDCA 4-step plan PDCA 4-step plan Plan, Do, Check, Act Plan, Do, Check, Act DMAIC 5-Step plan (Six Sigma) DMAIC 5-Step plan (Six Sigma) Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control University of Phoenix 9-step plan University of Phoenix 9-step plan Describe, Frame, State goals, Identify alternatives, Evaluate alternatives, Assess risks, Make decision, Develop/Implement solution, Evaluate results. Describe, Frame, State goals, Identify alternatives, Evaluate alternatives, Assess risks, Make decision, Develop/Implement solution, Evaluate results.

58 58 PDCA Problem Solving Cycle PDCA PDCA

59 59 Step One: Defining the Problem and Collecting Data

60 60 Step Two: Analyzing Data Affinity Matrix Affinity Matrix

61 61 Step Two: Analyzing Data Building Consensus through Multivoting Building Consensus through Multivoting

62 62 Step Three: Evaluating and Selecting Potential Solutions Prioritization Matrix Prioritization Matrix

63 63 Step Three: Evaluating and Selecting Potential Solutions Variation: Weighted Solution Prioritization Matrix

64 64 Step Four: Developing an Action Plan for Implementation Constructing a Tree Diagram Constructing a Tree Diagram

65 65 Step Four: Developing an Action Plan for Implementation Tree Diagram Example Tree Diagram Example

66 66 PDCA Problem Solving Cycle Summary of Steps and Techniques Summary of Steps and Techniques

67 67 Six Sigma Problem Solving Process 1 Define 2 Measure 3 Analyze 4 Improve 5 Control Data Capability Sampling Patterns Closure Evaluate Monitor Document Standardize Control Data Analysis Process Analysis Root Cause Determination Implementation Pilot Error Proof Solutions Project Charter Flow Chart Stakeholder Analysis Voice of the Customer

68 68 UoP Decision Making Model

69 69 Helpful Tips to Foster Better Decision Making Helpful Tips to Foster Better Decision Making

70 70 Strategies for Increasing Creativity in Problem Solving

71 71 Management’s Role in Supporting and Stimulating Creativity

72 72 Management’s Role in Supporting and Stimulating Creativity

73 73 Decision Analysis: Chapter 2 Decision Analysis: Chapter 2 Identifying Objectives and Creating a Value Tree Identifying Objectives and Creating a Value Tree

74 74 Decision Making: Identifying Objectives A Comprehensive Value Tree A Comprehensive Value Tree

75 75 Value Tree Example: Widen Maple street? Value Tree Example: Widen Maple street?

76 76 Class Activity: Name Key Terms and Concepts Affinitizing Affinitizing Analogies (in problem solving) Analogies (in problem solving) Brainstorming Brainstorming Convergent thinking Convergent thinking Creativity Creativity Divergent thinking Divergent thinking Idea growers Idea growers Idea killers Idea killers Innovation chamber Innovation chamber Multivoting Multivoting Nominal group technique Nominal group technique PDCA cycle PDCA cycle Post-It Note brainstorming Post-It Note brainstorming P-P-C technique P-P-C technique Prioritization matrix Prioritization matrix Problem solving Problem solving Round robin Round robin Tree diagram Tree diagram

77 77 Next Week’s Readings Management: Chapter 9 Management: Chapter 9 Judgment in Managerial Decision Making: Chapter 6 Judgment in Managerial Decision Making: Chapter 6 Wharton on Making decision: Chapter 6 Wharton on Making decision: Chapter 6 Supplements for case study: “Let it Pour” Supplements for case study: “Let it Pour”

78 78 Next Week’s Individual Assignment Respond to the Discussion Questions posted by your instructor. Respond to the Discussion Questions posted by your instructor. Critical Thinking Case Study Critical Thinking Case Study Prepare a 1,750-2,100 word paper on the critical thinking case study assignment, “Critical Thinking Case Study: Let it Pour - My First Assignment as Executive Assistant.” You will work individually to complete this critical-thinking case study analysis. Prepare a 1,750-2,100 word paper on the critical thinking case study assignment, “Critical Thinking Case Study: Let it Pour - My First Assignment as Executive Assistant.” You will work individually to complete this critical-thinking case study analysis. For use in completing the individual Case Study assignment, access the following University of Phoenix Materials located on the : For use in completing the individual Case Study assignment, access the following University of Phoenix Materials located on the : “Critical Thinking Case Study: Let it Pour”“Critical Thinking Case Study: Let it Pour” “Case Study Characteristics: Evaluation Form”“Case Study Characteristics: Evaluation Form” “Preparing Case Study Analysis”“Preparing Case Study Analysis” “Problem Solving Tools and Techniques”“Problem Solving Tools and Techniques” “Decision Making Steps”“Decision Making Steps” “Decision Making Worksheet”“Decision Making Worksheet”

79 79 Case Study Grading Criterion Grading Criterion Defines the problem that appears in the case study Proposes appropriate solutions to problem Uses course content to support proposed solutions Paper format

80 80 Next Week’s Team Assignment Meeting Four Meeting Four Part III: Problem Analysis and Decision-Making Technique Paper Part III: Problem Analysis and Decision-Making Technique Paper Prepare a 1,050-1,400-word paper in which you analyze at least three alternative solutions to the problem selected in Learning Team Meeting One. Remember each alternative must stand on its own. Any combination of alternatives becomes an alternative of its own. Utilizing Decision-Making Tools or Techniques analyze each alternative and select the best one. Chose one of the solutions and identify three influences on that choice. Prepare a 1,050-1,400-word paper in which you analyze at least three alternative solutions to the problem selected in Learning Team Meeting One. Remember each alternative must stand on its own. Any combination of alternatives becomes an alternative of its own. Utilizing Decision-Making Tools or Techniques analyze each alternative and select the best one. Chose one of the solutions and identify three influences on that choice.

81 81 THE END THE END


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