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An Energy Demand PhD: Practice, Impact, Progress Energy Demand in Context Monday 26 th September 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "An Energy Demand PhD: Practice, Impact, Progress Energy Demand in Context Monday 26 th September 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Energy Demand PhD: Practice, Impact, Progress Energy Demand in Context Monday 26 th September 2011

2 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment The Lecture Why should we care about energy use - and energy use in buildings in particular? How can we reduce energy demand in buildings? How can an energy demand PhD make a difference? Why this DTC?

3 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment Electricity Act 1989 Energy Act 1983 UKERC Research Atlas

4 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment funding for applied construction research (House of Lords 2005 Energy Efficiency, p99)

5 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment Why this DTC – strategic? The factors that affect energy demand are apparently simple but interact in complex ways. Many different disciplines need to collaborate to establish solid understanding. Traditionally building energy demand research fragmented. Underfunded compared to other energy research areas.

6 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment Why this DTC - purpose? To provide a national focus for energy demand research training. To provide a national focus for stakeholder (industry to government) engagement and support for energy demand research training. To provide a critical mass of endeavour that complements other energy research efforts. To capitalise on the complimentary strengths of two universities which together have the largest concentration of energy demand research in the UK. To train researchers with a broad perspective and broad range of theoretical and practical research skills.

7 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment Why this DTC – the training? Focus on ‘the problem’ and the critical assessment of it - with skills acquired to enable this. Immersion over 4 year in an environment focused solely on energy demand and buildings. Opportunity to study a wide range of topics and to pursue personal interests. Overseas placements and intern management. Environment of peer-to-peer learning. Experience of two universities of different character and research directions.

8 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment World energy and green house gas relationship Source: CO 2 x1; HFCx20,000, PFCx5, ,000; SF6 x23,000. Methanex23; N2O x 296, 13.5% 61.4% 15% 77% 18.3%

9 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment USA: Energy and green house gas relationship Source: 86.3% 27.2% 27.3% 22%

10 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment Source: DECC 1Mtoe ≈ 11.6x10 9 kWh 19% 24% 57% 28% 33% Approx. 57% of all energy produced and imported

11 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment UK Energy & CO 2 emissions Energy, 2001 CO 2 emissions, 2001 Source: DTI 2002Source: DEFRA 2002 Commercial and public buildings 15% of UK emissions. Currently there are around 59m people in the UK There are around 26million UK households in 2001 Average size is 2.47 people per household and falling Average house is 84m2 or 34m2 per person 78% of homes are heated by gas rest electricity

12 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment Exercise 1: write down four different reasons why we might care about energy demand in buildings.

13 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment Reason 1: Climatic Warming - temperatures Average 10-year running mean The worlds longest available instrumental temperature record. Dickens’ years The winter of ‘ warmest year on record. July - warmest month ever. Warmest September ever. Highest recorded temperature in UK 10 August 2003: 38.5 o C The seven hottest years in 20th century recorded between 1990 and 2000

14 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment In 2080 London could be as warm as the following places are today: Tanger Toulouse Tenerife and Thessaloniki but there will be more frequent and more intense heat waves.

15 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment Reason 1: Climatic Warming - Ice Caps North West passage open for first time since records began BBC, Friday, 14 September 2007, 21:19 GMT UK

16 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment Reason 1: Climatic Warming Heat Wave UK: 2,045 additional deaths France:14,802 additional deaths Germany: 7,000 additional deaths Europe:35,000 additional deaths The old especially, and the very young suffer Hottest year in France for 50 years. Heat wave lasted two weeks Heat wave – period where peak temp remains over 35 o C. In France 91% of victims over 65 - most died at home or in retirement homes. Insulation reduced the risk by factor of 5. Bedroom under roof increases risk by factor of 4.

17 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment Reason 2a: finite fuel resource - Total production from north sea and oil price Source: Mackay, More ‘Mickey Mouse’ units: I barrel of oil is about 159litres One Barrel of oil equivalent is about 1,700kWh.

18 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment Reason 2b: Security of supply Gas Oil Gas Oil Gas Oil Coal ‘makes our economy vulnerable to the whims of untrustworthy foreigners’ – Mackay, 2007, p5.

19 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment Reason 2c: A particularly British affair, closure of old UK power stations - the energy gap Source: Mackay, 2009, p5. Three fuels shown

20 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment Reason 3: Social equality and fuel poverty Fuel poverty is when a household would need to spend more than 10% of its income to provide adequate heating. A vulnerable household is one that contains the elderly, children or somebody who is disabled or long term sick. 16% of UK households

21 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment Reason 4: Pollution Acid rain Nuclear waste Oil spills Urban smog Light pollution Visual intrusion Noise etc

22 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment How do we reduce the energy demand of buildings? Exercise 2: Write down five very different ways that the energy demands of buildings might be reduced.

23 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment How do we reduce energy demand in buildings?

24 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment MAC curve for UK House refurbishment Source DECC: What measures does the Green deal cover?

25 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment The problem of energy savings and pay-back times Source: ETI (2008) courtesy K. Seare

26 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment How can an energy demand PhD make a difference?

27 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment Curiosity driven research – Thermal comfort Cybernetic model of human thermal comfort –Predicts physiological state of humans and thermal comfort perception Industry applications –Building design: indoor comfort –Medicine: MTRE, Israel –Vehicle design: BMW, Germany –Clothing design: WL Gore (USA/UK), EMPA (Switzerland) –Weather reporting: Int. Soc of Biometeorology University Research –EU (Kassel, Karlsruhe, Stuttgart, Denmark, Maastricht, Rome) –USA (Portland State, Iowa State and Michigan Technical)

28 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment Industry stimulated then on and on: Solar radiation and daylight prediction Useful Daylight Illuminances (UDI)

29 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment New technologies: Experiments and monitoring Solar powered diffusion- absorption cooling machines PV and UK dwellings Ventilation field tests

30 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment Theory into practice Short & Associates

31 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment PhDs and masters’ projects at UCL

32 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment dustmites…

33 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment dustmites…

34 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment Predictive variability in energy performance compliance verification tools : issues and implications Rokia Raslan studied the variability in energy and CO 2 predictions for new commercial buildings made by different compliance tools. Her PhD has had a significant and unresolved impact on debates around Part L and the implementation of the Zero Carbon Standard.

35 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment studies of energy impacts of conservatories In 1990 Oreszczyn supervised a master’s student at the Bartlett who investigated how people used conservatories (Chu 1990). She found that out of the 10 she visited 9 were heated. This observation led onto a larger study undertaken by Pathan (2007). The problem is still not resolved.

36 The UK Doctoral Training Centre in Energy Demand Reduction and the Built Environment SAP and Building Regulations An MSc on SAP and the Building Regulations led to this publication (Oreszczyn & Gillot 1995) and eventually to UCL’s involvement in the Building Regulations. Mark Gillot now runs a large research team at Nottingham University.


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