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Luke Renegar.  Censor (v.): “to suppress or delete as objectionable” – Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11 th ed., p. 200  The term censor derives.

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Presentation on theme: "Luke Renegar.  Censor (v.): “to suppress or delete as objectionable” – Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11 th ed., p. 200  The term censor derives."— Presentation transcript:

1 Luke Renegar

2  Censor (v.): “to suppress or delete as objectionable” – Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11 th ed., p. 200  The term censor derives from the Roman Republic  Censorship in the modern sense is often political or religious in nature  Source: Newth

3  Censors were elected officials in the Roman Republic  There were two of them at all times  Their name derived from their supervision of the quinquennial census  They were also responsible for the punishment of moral offenses  Source: Smith

4  Socrates (Athenian philosipher) censored in 399 BC  Charges: Religious nonconformity “Corrupting the youth” 1 – extremely nonspecific  Executed  Called “first martyr for free speech” (Linder)  Source: Linder

5  Inquisitions were Catholic Church courts established to prosecute alleged heresies  They could coerce the cooperation of secular authorities in enforcing their orders  1231 – Pope Gregory IX officially establishes life imprisonment as punishment for repentant heretics, death for unrepentant ones  Source: Van Helden

6  De Scandalis Magnatum passed  Prohibited defaming the Monarch or other “Great Men of the Realm” (“The Dangerous”)  Cases arising from this law eventually were routed to the infamous Star Chamber  Source: “The Dangerous Lives”

7  Established by Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile  An outgrowth of the monarchs’ reconquista policies (so it really wasn’t all that unexpected...)  Responsible for repression of heresy, Islam, Judaism, and philosophies the monarchs didn’t like generally  Source: “The Spanish”

8  Bishop of Treviso (with authority over Vencice) ruled that any book on religion required the approval of the diocese prior to publication  “[D]escribed as the first printed regulation of the [Catholic] Church having to do with censorship.” (Putnam)  Applied only to Venice  Source: Putnam

9  Issued by Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia)  Instructs rulers of certain German dioceses to carefully censor publications therein  Very early example of systematic censorship of written works coming from Rome  Source: Putnam

10  Martin Luther formally excommunicated in Jan. 1521  Declared outlaw for refusing to recant heretical teachings by the Diet of Worms under Holy Roman Emperor Charles V  The Diet was a notable instance of civil consequences for religious speech  Source: “Luther”

11  Index etc. is Latin for “Index of Forbidden Books”  Published by the Catholic Church  Listed books deemed heretical or injurious to public morality  Last edition issued in 1948  Revoked in 1966  Source: “Index”

12  Charles IX of France required all books be approved prior to publication  Early instance of widespread prior restraint (requiring approval before publication)  Significant because of its massive scope (the entirety of France)  Source: Newth

13  English court  Could ignore common law procedure and precedent (e.g., no juries)  Frequently used to enforce (sometimes arbitrary) royal decrees  Abolished by Long Parliament in 1641  Source: “Court”

14  Order of Parliament  Required both prior restraint of all printed material and registration of printed material with the Company of Stationers prior to publication  Opposed by Milton in his Aeropagitica (1644)  Sources: Parkinson, “Milton: Aeropagitica,” and “Milton: Parliament’s Licensing Order of 1643”

15  Marks the end of formal prior restraint in Britain  Source: Emerson 651

16  Formal censorship of publications abolished  Notable exceptions (repealed in 1810): Theological matters The king  Also served as a freedom of information law, the earliest such law documented  Source: “Freedom”, “Sweden”

17  Guarantees freedom of speech  Not qualified on the basis of religion  Source: “Declaration”

18  Major piece of libel reform in Great Britain  Made the determination of what constituted libel a question for juries rather than judges  Source: “Charles James Fox”

19  Printer in Nuremburg who published material critical of Napoleon  Napoleon sent an extraterratorial force in pursuit of Palm  The force captured him, convicted him at a court-martial, and executed him  Source: De Bourrienne 336-337

20  Passed in German Confederation in response to increasing radical and nationalistic activities  Censored many publications Editors of banned publications faced a five year personal ban on publications  Restricted activities at universities  Sources: “Carlsbad”

21  German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck made every attempt to repress the Catholic Church in Germany  Bismarck: Forbade priests from preaching political sermons Abolished the Jesuit order Inserted the state into institutions of Catholic theological education  Source: “Kulturkampf”

22  Freedom of press supsended in Germany and France  British press remained somewhat free (subject to restrictions concerning military secrets), but British government controlled telegraphs  Source: Jürgen

23  Primary Soviet censorship bureaucracy  Charged with elimination of counterrevolutionary expression  Systematically destroyed disfavored writers in USSR and occupied countries  Source: Newth

24  German for “Night of Broken Glass”  Nazi forces raided Jewish homes and businesses  Censorship of Jewish ideas and customs through personal violence  Source: “Kristallnacht”

25  Established by United Nations  Adopted as a response to the atrocities of WWII  Article 19 guarantees the right to freedom of expression  Sources: “Universal” (2009), “Universal” (2007)

26  "Carlsbad Decrees". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2014. Web. 23 Mar 2014.  “Censor.” Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary. 11th ed. 2004. Print.  "Censorship." Gale Encyclopedia of Everyday Law. Ed. Jeffrey Wilson. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Detroit: Gale, 2006. 843-848. Student Resources in Context. Web. 23 Mar 2014.  "Censorship." New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Ed. Maryanne Cline Horowitz. Vol. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005. 290-295. Student Resources in Context. Web. 23 Mar 2014.  "Charles James Fox". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2014. Web. 23 Mar 2014  "Court of Star Chamber". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2014. Web. 23 Mar 2014.  "The Dangerous Lives of Printers: The Evolution of Freedom of the Press." The E Pluribus Unum Project. E Pluribus Unum Project (Assumption College). Web. 22 Mar 2014.  De Bourrienne, Louis Antoine Fauvelet. R.W. Phipps, ed. Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte. Vol. II. London: Bentley, 1885. Google Book Search. Web. 23 Mar 2014.  "Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 26 August 1789." Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution. American Social History Productions, Inc, 2001. Web. 23 Mar 2014.  Emerson, Thomas. "The Doctrine of Prior Restraint." Law and Contemporary Problems. 20.4 (1955): 648-671. Yale Faculty Scholarship Series. Web. 23 Mar 2014.  "Freedom of the Press Act of 1766". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2014. Web. 23 Mar 2014.  "Index Librorum Prohibitorum". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2014. Web. 23 Mar 2014.  Jürgen, Wilke. "Censorship and Freedom of the Press." EGO European History Online. Leibniz Institute of European History, 05 Aug 2013. Web. 23 Mar 2014.

27  "Kristallnacht". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2014. Web. 23 Mar. 2014.  "Kulturkampf". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2014. Web. 23 Mar 2014.  Linder, Doug. "The Trial of Socrates." Famous Trials. University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law, 2002. Web. 25 Mar 2014.  "Luther, Martin." World Religions Reference Library. Ed. Julie L. Carnagie, et al. Vol. 4: Biographies. Detroit: UXL, 2007. 225-234. Student Resources in Context. Web. 23 Mar 2014. Laursen, John Christian.  "Milton: Aeropagitica." John Milton Reading Room. Dartmouth College. Web. 23 Mar 2014.  "Milton: Parliament's Licensing Order of 1643." John Milton Reading Room. Dartmouth College. Web. 23 Mar 2014.  Newth, Mette. "The Long History of Censorship." Beacon for Freedom of Expression. National Library of Norway, 2010. Web. 23 Mar 2014.  Parkinson, Sid, ed. "The Aeropagitica." St. Lawrence Institute for the Advancement of Learning. St. Lawrence Institute. Web. 23 Mar 2014.  Putnam, George Haven. The Censorship of the Church of Rome. I. New York: Putnam, 1906. Google Book Search. Web. 23 Mar 2014.  Smith, William, William Wayte, and G. E. Marindin, eds. "Censor." A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. London: 1890. Perseus Digital Library. Web. 22 Mar 2014.  "The Spanish Inquisition Is Founded: 1478." Global Events: Milestone Events Throughout History. Ed. Jennifer Stock. Vol. 4: Europe. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2013. Student Resources in Context. Web. 23 Mar. 2014.  "Sweden." UCL Constitution Unit. UCL School of Public Policy, 30 Sept 2011. Web. 23 Mar 2014.  "Universal Declaration of Human Rights." UXL Encyclopedia of U.S. History. Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine. Vol. 8. Detroit: UXL, 2009. 1611-1612. Student Resources in Context. Web. 23 Mar. 2014.  "Universal Declaration of Human Rights." Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations. Ed. Timothy L. Gall and Jeneen M. Hobby. 12th ed. Vol. 1: United Nations. Detroit: Gale, 2007. Student Resources in Context. Web. 23 Mar. 2014.  Van Helden, Albert. "The Inquisition." Galileo Project. Galileo Project (Rice University), n.d. Web. 23 Mar 2014.


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