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Lecture 2 Management Theories

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1 Lecture 2 Management Theories
Historical background of management 中国古代管理理论简介 Scientific management General administrative theorists Quantitative approach to management Organizational behavior The Systems Approach The Contingency Approach Current trends and issues(自学)

2 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter
Historical Background of Management Explain why studying management history is important. Describe some early evidences of management practice. Scientific Management Describe the important contributions made by Fredrick W. Taylor and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. Explain how today’s managers use scientific management.

3 Learning Outcomes2 General Administrative Theorists
• Discuss Fayol’s 14 management principles. • Describe Max Weber’s contribution to the general administrative theory of management. • Explain how today’s managers use general administrative theory. Quantitative Approach to Management • Explain what the quantitative approach has contributed to the field of management. • Discuss how today’s managers use the quantitative approach.

4 Learning Outcomes3 Toward Understanding Organizational Behavior
Describe the contributions of the early advocates of OB. Explain the contributions of the Hawthorne Studies to the field of management. Discuss how today’s managers use the behavioral approach. The Systems Approach Describe an organization using the systems approach. Discuss how the systems approach helps us management.

5 Learning Outcomes4 The Contingency Approach Current Issues and Trends
Explain how the contingency approach differs from the early theories of management. Discuss how the contingency approach helps us understand management. Current Issues and Trends Explain why we need to look at the current trends and issues facing managers. Describe the current trends and issues facing managers.

6 Historical Background of Management1
Egyptian pyramids, The great wall, Venice city Management achieved a lot in our history, how can we succeed to them and leave more miracles for our future generations?

7 Chinese Ancient Viewpoints on Management中国古代管理思想
儒家管理思想 道家管理思想 法家以及兵家管理思想

8 儒家管理思想 管理核心 管理范围 管理方式

9 1、儒家管理思想核心 天地之性人为贵,管理核心是“治人” 性善论:人之初,性本善,性相近,习相远--人之恻隐之心、尊敬之心等仁爱之心与生俱来
恶之源:耳濡目染、物欲过盛 性恶论:荀子认为好逸恶劳乃人之本性,需引导、教化和管理来从善 提倡天人合一的管理境界,人性导善,做圣做贤

10 2、儒家管理范围--由己及人 格物致知、诚意正心--修身 孝悌之道--齐家
以知(好学)、仁(力行)、勇(知耻)推行君臣、父子、夫妻、昆弟、朋友之大道--治国 众望所归--平天下 《中庸》二十章:为天下国家有九经。曰:修身也,尊贤也,亲亲也,敬大臣也,体群臣也,子庶民也,来百工也,柔远人也,怀诸侯也。

11 3、儒家管理的方式--仁政 仁:推己及人,爱心、身教言传 德政:道之以德,齐之以礼,民有耻且格 ⊙法治:道之以政,齐之以刑,民免且无耻

12 道家管理思想 道家思想简介 道家管理--水式管理

13 道家思想简介 启源:黄帝、周易--宇宙之道的揭示,阴阳矛盾统一,相克相生,相辅相存、转化、统一 代表人物:老子、庄子

14 道家管理--水式管理(一) 水性: ★柔软:君子不器,环境适应性强 ★谦虚:永远处于下位,不争不夺 ★奉献:任需所取,尽己所有
★宽容:容纳一切,无有分别 ★自新:静以澄明,不断积蓄力量

15 道家管理--水式管理(二) 管理的最高境界--无为而治
《道德经》17章:太上不知有之,其次亲而誉之,其次畏之,其次,侮之。信不足也,有不信焉。 老子三宝:一曰慈,一曰俭,一曰不敢为天下先。慈故能勇,俭故能广,不敢为天下先故能成器长。

16 道家管理--水式管理(三)--管理方法 居善地:择仁地而居 心善渊:宽容博大,不以己为然 与善仁:交往仁人志士,提升德艺
言善信:言行一致,树立信用 正善治:立足本职,踏实做事,力求完善 事善能:做事讲究效率和结果 动善时:把握机会,相时而动

17 法家和兵家的思想 法家:管仲、商鞅等 依法管理、法不阿贵、厚赏重罚、赏誉同轨 兵家:孙子 以谋为中心,主张“慎战”。

18 推荐中国古代管理书目 《论语》、《大学》、《中庸》、《老子》、《孙子兵法》、《曾国藩家书》 南怀瑾《老子他说》、《论语别裁》、《孟子旁通》

19 Historical Background of Management2---Western viewpoints on management
Adam Smith: division of labor can increase the productivity Industrial Revolution: machine power take the place of human power, and which call for the new way of management .

20 经济学之父:亚当 斯密之代表作: 国富论:营生者的自利行为 道德情操论(The Theory of Moral Sentiments):贵族的利他观点-同情 关系:它是理性、道义、良心、心中的 那个居民、内心的那个人、判断我们行为的伟大的法官和仲裁人。〈第三卷 第三章〉强迫著人们尽管在自利的状况下,还能维持公利的要求。

21 1.Adam Smith’s Contribution to the Field of Management
The general popularity today of job specialization is undoubtedly due to Smith’s view about division of labor. Division of labor is the breakdown of jobs into narrow, repetitive tasks, which increasing each worker’s skill and dexterity, saving time lost in changing tasks, and by creating inventions and machinery.

22 2.Industrial Revolution’s Influence on Management Practices
Industrial Revolution has originated in late-18th-century Great Britain, and crossed the Atlantic to America by the end of the Civil War. Because of the Industrial Revolution, machine power was rapidly substituted for human power, which made it economical to manufacture goods in factories. With the development of big organizations, a formal theory to guide managers running these organizations efficiently and effectively was needed.

23 Background of That Time
There were no clear concepts of responsibilities to workers and managers. No effective work standards existed. Management decisions were based on hunch and intuition. Workers were placed on jobs with little or no concern for matching their abilities and aptitudes with the tasks required. Managers and workers considered themselves to be in continual conflict—any gain by one would be at the expense of the other.

24 Exhibit 2–1 Development of Major Management Theories

25 Major Approaches to Management
Scientific Management General Administrative Theory Quantitative Management Organizational Behavior Systems Approach Contingency Approach

26 Scientific Management
Fredrick Winslow Taylor The “father” of scientific management Published Principles of Scientific Management (1911) The theory of scientific management Using scientific methods to define the “one best way” for a job to be done: Putting the right person on the job with the correct tools and equipment. Having a standardized method of doing the job. Providing an economic incentive to the worker.

27 科学管理之父 弗雷德理克 泰勒 (1856~1915)


29 Scientific Management
Contributions of F.W. Taylor – define the “one best way” for doing each job – select appropriate workers and train them doing their jobs by one best way – introduce economic incentive system in order to motivate workers result – improvements in productivity in the range of 200 percent

30 吉尔布雷斯夫妇(Cheaper by the dozen)

31 Scientific Management (cont’d)
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Focused on increasing worker productivity through the reduction of wasted motion Developed the microchronometer to time worker motions and optimize work performance How Do Today’s Managers Use Scientific Management? Use time and motion studies to increase productivity Hire the best qualified employees Design incentive systems based on output

32 科学管理理论的弊端 查理 卓别林主演的《摩登时代》揭露了将工人看作“会说话的机器”,繁重的、过于规范化的劳动给工人身心都带来了巨大的伤害。有悖于泰勒的“双方合作”的本意和初衷。


34 General Administrative Management
Henri Fayol – developed theories of what constituted good management practice • described the practice of management as distinct from other typical business functions • proposed a universal set of management functions – 14 principles of management • fundamental or universal rules of management • applied in all organizational situations

35 组织管理之父 :亨利 法约尔

36 General Administrative Management
Believed that the practice of management was distinct from other organizational functions Developed fourteen principles of management that applied to all organizational situations



39 Weber’s Ideal Bureaucracy
Max Weber – developed a theory of authority structures and relations – Bureaucracy - ideal type of organization Developed a theory of authority based on an ideal type of organization (bureaucracy) Emphasized rationality(理性), predictability(可预见性), impersonality(客观), technical competence(专业能力), and authoritarianism(专制)

40 Exhibit 2–4 Weber’s Ideal Bureaucracy

41 Quantitative Approach
Also called operations research or management science Evolved from mathematical and statistical methods developed to solve WWII military logistics and quality control problems Focuses on improving managerial decision making by applying: Statistics, optimization models, information models, and computer simulations

42 Quantitative Approach To Management
How to use – this approach has contributed most directly to managerial decision making, particularly in planning and controlling -Linear programming -Critical-path scheduling analysis – the application of computer software programs made it possible to use quantitative techniques for managers

43 Understanding Organizational Behavior
Organizational Behavior (OB) The study of the actions of people at work; people are the most important asset of an organization Early OB Advocates Robert Owen Hugo Munsterberg Mary Parker Follett Chester Barnard


45 Exhibit 2–5 Early Advocates of OB

46 Organizational Behavior
The Hawthorne Studies– A series of productivity experiments conducted at Western Electric from 1927 to 1932. Experimental findings Productivity unexpectedly increased under imposed adverse working conditions. The effect of incentive plans was less than expected. Research conclusion Social norms, group standards and attitudes more strongly influence individual output and work behavior than do monetary incentives.


48 The Systems Approach System Defined Basic Types of Systems
A set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole. Basic Types of Systems Closed systems Are not influenced by and do not interact with their environment (all system input and output is internal). Open systems Dynamically interact to their environments by taking in inputs and transforming them into outputs that are distributed into their environments.

49 Exhibit 2–6 The Organization as an Open System

50 Implications of the Systems Approach
Coordination of the organization’s parts is essential for proper functioning of the entire organization. Decisions and actions taken in one area of the organization will have an effect in other areas of the organization. Organizations are not self-contained and, therefore, must adapt to changes in their external environment.

51 系统图片:发怒与南极冰雪融化

52 The Contingency Approach
Contingency Approach Defined Also sometimes called the situational approach. There is no one universally applicable set of management principles (rules) by which to manage organizations. Organizations are individually different, face different situations (contingency variables), and require different ways of managing.

53 Exhibit 2–7 Popular Contingency Variables
Organization size As size increases, so do the problems of coordination. Routineness of task technology Routine technologies require organizational structures, leadership styles, and control systems that differ from those required by customized or nonroutine technologies. Environmental uncertainty What works best in a stable and predictable environment may be totally inappropriate in a rapidly changing and unpredictable environment. Individual differences Individuals differ in terms of their desire for growth, autonomy, tolerance of ambiguity, and expectations.

54 权变理论--水的结晶变化图片-入境随俗

55 Current trends and Issues(自学思考部分)
Globalization Ethics Workforce Diversity Entrepreneurship Managing in a E-Business World Learning organization and knowledge management Quality management

56 思考题 请举例说明全球化对于企业的经营会产生什么样的影响? 对于管理者而言,你认为道德问题重要还是利益问题重要?
多元化的工作团队对于组织的影响在什么方面? 现代的企业家精神是稀缺品吗? 电子商务对于我们的影响在什么方面? 学习型组织应该具有一种什么样的氛围?知识管理和学习型组织的关系是什么? 当代的质量管理是前进了还是后退了,为什么?

57 Current Trends and Issues
Globalization – all organizations are faced with the opportunities and challenges of operating in a global market • no longer constrained by national borders Workforce Diversity Increasing heterogeneity in the workforce More gender, minority, ethnic, and other forms of diversity in employees Aging workforce Older employees who work longer and do not retire The increased costs of public and private benefits for older workers An increasing demand for products and services related to aging.

58 Current Trends and Issues
Ethics What is the ethical dilemma? Who are the affected stakeholders? What personal, organizational, and external factors are important to my decision? What are possible alternatives? Make a decision and act on it.

59 Current Trends and Issues
Entrepreneurship – the process whereby an individual or a group of individuals uses organized efforts and means to pursue opportunities to create value and grow by fulfilling wants and needs through innovation and uniqueness, no matter what resources are currently controlled Entrepreneurship process • pursuit of opportunities - pursuing environmental trends and changes that no one else has seen or paid attention to • innovation - changing, revolutionizing, transforming, and introducing products or services or new ways of doing business • growth - Desire for continual growth of the organization – will continue to be important in all societies – will influence profit and not-for-profit organizations

60 Current Trends and Issues
Managing in an E-Business World – E-business - comprehensive term describing the way an organization does its work by using electronic (Internet-based) linkages with key constituencies(支持者) • may include e-commerce three categories reflect different degrees of involvement in e-business – E-commerce – sales and marketing component of e-business – intranet - an internal organizational communication system that uses Internet technology and is accessible only by organizational employees



63 Current Trends and Issues
Learning Organizations and Knowledge Management Knowledge Management– The cultivation of a learning culture where organizational members systematically gather and share knowledge with others in order to achieve better performance. Learning Organization– An organization that has developed the capacity to continuously learn, adapt, and change. managers must transform themselves from bosses to team leaders • learn to listen, motivate, coach, and nurture(扶持)

64 Exhibit 2–10 Learning Organization versus Traditional Organization

65 Current Trends and Issues
Quality Management A philosophy of management driven by continual improvement in the quality of work processes and responding to customer needs and expectations Inspired by the total quality management (TQM) ideas of Deming and Juran Quality is not directly related to cost Poor quality results in lower productivity

66 Exhibit 2–11 What is Quality Management?
Intense focus on the customer. Concern for continual improvement Process-focused. Improvement in the quality of everything. Accurate measurement. Empowerment of employees.

67 Terms to Know division of labor (or job specialization)
Industrial Revolution scientific management therbligs general administrative theory principles of management bureaucracy quantitative approach organizational behavior (OB) Hawthorne Studies system closed systems open systems contingency approach workforce diversity entrepreneurship e-business (electronic business) e-commerce (electronic commerce) intranet learning organization knowledge management quality management

68 Practices What’s the Taylor’s four principles of management?
What’s the 14-principles of management? What’s the Mayo’s Finding? What are current trends and issues?

69 Discussion Information is power—those who have it have power. 1 Should employees have to share this knowledge when they themselves have worked to gain it? 2 Should they have to share this knowledge when, perhaps, their performance evaluations are based on how well they do their jobs, and how well they do their jobs is dependent on their special knowledge? 3 What ethical implications can be expected when a manager strives to create an organizational environment that promotes learning and knowledge sharing?

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