Presentation on theme: "Lecture 2 Management Theories Historical background of management 中国古代管理理论简介 Scientific management General administrative theorists Quantitative approach."— Presentation transcript:
Lecture 2 Management Theories Historical background of management 中国古代管理理论简介 Scientific management General administrative theorists Quantitative approach to management Organizational behavior The Systems Approach The Contingency Approach Current trends and issues （自学）
L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter Historical Background of Management Explain why studying management history is important. Describe some early evidences of management practice. Scientific Management Describe the important contributions made by Fredrick W. Taylor and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. Explain how today ’ s managers use scientific management.
Learning Outcomes2 General Administrative Theorists Discuss Fayol ’ s 14 management principles. Describe Max Weber ’ s contribution to the general administrative theory of management. Explain how today ’ s managers use general administrative theory. Quantitative Approach to Management Explain what the quantitative approach has contributed to the field of management. Discuss how today ’ s managers use the quantitative approach.
Learning Outcomes3 Toward Understanding Organizational Behavior Describe the contributions of the early advocates of OB. Explain the contributions of the Hawthorne Studies to the field of management. Discuss how today ’ s managers use the behavioral approach. The Systems Approach Describe an organization using the systems approach. Discuss how the systems approach helps us management.
Learning Outcomes4 The Contingency Approach Explain how the contingency approach differs from the early theories of management. Discuss how the contingency approach helps us understand management. Current Issues and Trends Explain why we need to look at the current trends and issues facing managers. Describe the current trends and issues facing managers.
Historical Background of Management1 Egyptian pyramids, The great wall, Venice city Management achieved a lot in our history, how can we succeed to them and leave more miracles for our future generations?
Chinese Ancient Viewpoints on Management 中国古代管理思想 儒家管理思想 道家管理思想 法家以及兵家管理思想
Historical Background of Management2---Western viewpoints on management Adam Smith: division of labor can increase the productivity Industrial Revolution: machine power take the place of human power, and which call for the new way of management.
经济学之父：亚当 斯 密之代表作： 国富论：营生者的自利 行为 道德情操论 (The Theory of Moral Sentiments) ： 贵族的利他观点－同情 关系： 它是理性、道义、良心、 心中的 那个居民、内心的那个人、 判断我们行为的伟大的法官和仲 裁人。〈第三卷 第三章〉强迫著 人们尽管在自利的状况下，还能 维持公利的要求。
1.Adam Smith’s Contribution to the Field of Management The general popularity today of job specialization is undoubtedly due to Smith’s view about division of labor. Division of labor is the breakdown of jobs into narrow, repetitive tasks, which increasing each worker’s skill and dexterity, saving time lost in changing tasks, and by creating inventions and machinery.
2.Industrial Revolution’s Influence on Management Practices Industrial Revolution has originated in late-18th-century Great Britain, and crossed the Atlantic to America by the end of the Civil War. Because of the Industrial Revolution, machine power was rapidly substituted for human power, which made it economical to manufacture goods in factories. With the development of big organizations, a formal theory to guide managers running these organizations efficiently and effectively was needed.
Background of That Time There were no clear concepts of responsibilities to workers and managers. No effective work standards existed. Management decisions were based on hunch and intuition. Workers were placed on jobs with little or no concern for matching their abilities and aptitudes with the tasks required. Managers and workers considered themselves to be in continual conflict—any gain by one would be at the expense of the other.
Exhibit 2 – 1Development of Major Management Theories
Major Approaches to Management Scientific Management General Administrative Theory Quantitative Management Organizational Behavior Systems Approach Contingency Approach
Scientific Management Fredrick Winslow Taylor The “ father ” of scientific management Published Principles of Scientific Management (1911) The theory of scientific management –Using scientific methods to define the “ one best way ” for a job to be done: –Putting the right person on the job with the correct tools and equipment. –Having a standardized method of doing the job. –Providing an economic incentive to the worker.
科学管理之父 弗雷德理克 泰勒 （ 1856 ～ 1915 ）
Scientific Management Contributions of F.W. Taylor – define the “ one best way ” for doing each job – select appropriate workers and train them doing their jobs by one best way – introduce economic incentive system in order to motivate workers result – improvements in productivity in the range of 200 percent
吉尔布雷斯夫妇（ Cheaper by the dozen ）
Scientific Management (cont ’ d) Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Focused on increasing worker productivity through the reduction of wasted motion Developed the microchronometer to time worker motions and optimize work performance How Do Today ’ s Managers Use Scientific Management? Use time and motion studies to increase productivity Hire the best qualified employees Design incentive systems based on output
General Administrative Management Henri Fayol – developed theories of what constituted good management practice described the practice of management as distinct from other typical business functions proposed a universal set of management functions – 14 principles of management fundamental or universal rules of management applied in all organizational situations
组织管理之父 ： 亨利 法约尔
General Administrative Management Believed that the practice of management was distinct from other organizational functions Developed fourteen principles of management that applied to all organizational situations
Weber’s Ideal Bureaucracy Max Weber – developed a theory of authority structures and relations – Bureaucracy - ideal type of organization Developed a theory of authority based on an ideal type of organization (bureaucracy) Emphasized rationality( 理性）, predictability （可预见 性）, impersonality （客观）, technical competence （专 业能力）, and authoritarianism （专制）
Exhibit 2 – 4Weber ’ s Ideal Bureaucracy
Quantitative Approach Also called operations research or management science Evolved from mathematical and statistical methods developed to solve WWII military logistics and quality control problems Focuses on improving managerial decision making by applying: Statistics, optimization models, information models, and computer simulations
Quantitative Approach To Management How to use – this approach has contributed most directly to managerial decision making, particularly in planning and controlling -Linear programming -Critical-path scheduling analysis – the application of computer software programs made it possible to use quantitative techniques for managers
Understanding Organizational Behavior Organizational Behavior (OB) The study of the actions of people at work; people are the most important asset of an organization Early OB Advocates Robert Owen Hugo Munsterberg Mary Parker Follett Chester Barnard
Exhibit 2–5Early Advocates of OB
Organizational Behavior A series of productivity experiments conducted at Western Electric from 1927 to The Hawthorne Studies – A series of productivity experiments conducted at Western Electric from 1927 to Experimental findings Productivity unexpectedly increased under imposed adverse working conditions. The effect of incentive plans was less than expected. Research conclusion Social norms, group standards and attitudes more strongly influence individual output and work behavior than do monetary incentives.
The Systems Approach System Defined A set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole. Basic Types of Systems Closed systems Are not influenced by and do not interact with their environment (all system input and output is internal). Open systems Dynamically interact to their environments by taking in inputs and transforming them into outputs that are distributed into their environments.
Exhibit 2–6The Organization as an Open System
Implications of the Systems Approach Coordination of the organization ’ s parts is essential for proper functioning of the entire organization. Decisions and actions taken in one area of the organization will have an effect in other areas of the organization. Organizations are not self-contained and, therefore, must adapt to changes in their external environment.
The Contingency Approach Contingency Approach Defined Also sometimes called the situational approach. There is no one universally applicable set of management principles (rules) by which to manage organizations. Organizations are individually different, face different situations (contingency variables), and require different ways of managing.
Organization size As size increases, so do the problems of coordination. Routineness of task technology Routine technologies require organizational structures, leadership styles, and control systems that differ from those required by customized or nonroutine technologies. Environmental uncertainty What works best in a stable and predictable environment may be totally inappropriate in a rapidly changing and unpredictable environment. Individual differences Individuals differ in terms of their desire for growth, autonomy, tolerance of ambiguity, and expectations. Exhibit 2–7Popular Contingency Variables
Current trends and Issues( 自学思考 部分） Globalization Ethics Workforce Diversity Entrepreneurship Managing in a E-Business World Learning organization and knowledge management Quality management
Current Trends and Issues Globalization – all organizations are faced with the opportunities and challenges of operating in a global market no longer constrained by national borders Workforce Diversity Increasing heterogeneity in the workforce More gender, minority, ethnic, and other forms of diversity in employees Aging workforce Older employees who work longer and do not retire The increased costs of public and private benefits for older workers An increasing demand for products and services related to aging.
Current Trends and Issues Ethics What is the ethical dilemma? Who are the affected stakeholders? What personal, organizational, and external factors are important to my decision? What are possible alternatives? Make a decision and act on it.
Current Trends and Issues Entrepreneurship – the process whereby an individual or a group of individuals uses organized efforts and means to pursue opportunities to create value and grow by fulfilling wants and needs through innovation and uniqueness, no matter what resources are currently controlled Entrepreneurship process pursuit of opportunities - pursuing environmental trends and changes that no one else has seen or paid attention to innovation - changing, revolutionizing, transforming, and introducing products or services or new ways of doing business growth - Desire for continual growth of the organization – will continue to be important in all societies – will influence profit and not-for-profit organizations
Current Trends and Issues Managing in an E-Business World – E-business - comprehensive term describing the way an organization does its work by using electronic (Internet- based) linkages with key constituencies( 支持者） may include e-commerce three categories reflect different degrees of involvement in e-business – E-commerce – sales and marketing component of e- business – intranet - an internal organizational communication system that uses Internet technology and is accessible only by organizational employees
Current Trends and Issues Learning Organizations and Knowledge Management Knowledge Management – The cultivation of a learning culture where organizational members systematically gather and share knowledge with others in order to achieve better performance. Learning Organization – An organization that has developed the capacity to continuously learn, adapt, and change. managers must transform themselves from bosses to team leaders learn to listen, motivate, coach, and nurture （扶持）
Exhibit 2 – 10Learning Organization versus Traditional Organization
Current Trends and Issues Quality Management A philosophy of management driven by continual improvement in the quality of work processes and responding to customer needs and expectations Inspired by the total quality management (TQM) ideas of Deming and Juran Quality is not directly related to cost Poor quality results in lower productivity
Exhibit 2 – 11What is Quality Management? Intense focus on the customer. Concern for continual improvement Process-focused. Improvement in the quality of everything. Accurate measurement. Empowerment of employees.
Terms to Know division of labor (or job specialization) Industrial Revolution scientific management therbligs general administrative theory principles of management bureaucracy quantitative approach organizational behavior (OB) Hawthorne Studies system closed systems open systems contingency approach workforce diversity entrepreneurship e-business (electronic business) e-commerce (electronic commerce) intranet learning organization knowledge management quality management
Practices What ’ s the Taylor ’ s four principles of management? What ’ s the 14-principles of management? What ’ s the Mayo’s Finding? What are current trends and issues?
Discussion Information is power — those who have it have power. 1 Should employees have to share this knowledge when they themselves have worked to gain it? 2 Should they have to share this knowledge when, perhaps, their performance evaluations are based on how well they do their jobs, and how well they do their jobs is dependent on their special knowledge? 3 What ethical implications can be expected when a manager strives to create an organizational environment that promotes learning and knowledge sharing?