Presentation on theme: "Effective Visual Aids for Coaching Non-Literate Subsistence Farmers in Mali By Amy Druse In Collaboration With Florence Dunkel, PhD Montana State University."— Presentation transcript:
Effective Visual Aids for Coaching Non-Literate Subsistence Farmers in Mali By Amy Druse In Collaboration With Florence Dunkel, PhD Montana State University - Bozeman and Assa Kante l’Institute d’Economie Rurale (IER)
Mali Independent republic nation in West Africa Country rich in natural resources including: gold, salt, limestone and granite Country rich in culture with various ethnic groups which include: Malinke, Bambara, Soninke, Peul, Tuareg, Moor, Songhai and Voltaic
Demographics 80% of population are subsistence farmers 64% of the population in poverty (earn less than $1 a day) 46% illiteracy in urban areas, and up to 99% in rural areas
Problem After years and years of continual aid, why is Mali not yet flourishing? Why are they not competing in world markets? How can we improve traditional ideas of aid to better benefit Malian farmers and people? Calderisi, R. The Trouble with Africa: Why Foreign Aid Isn’t Working. Yale University Press. 2006
Focus The Mali Agribusiness Network is about to launch. One Network goal is to bridge this gap.
Hypothesis The impact of aid projects such as those created by the Mali Agribusiness Entrepreneurial Incubator Network will increase dramatically with addition of effective visual aids which may include photographs, movies and slides as well as taking a “farmer first” approach when introducing new ideas to the subsistence farmers.
Methods Participatory and holistic discussions in Village Participatory Process = develop a relationship with the village, provoking questions that may lead to the discoveries of various problems or solutions that may be of interest to the villagers In-Depth Individual Interviews with the villagers on what types of teaching styles they prefer. Ex. Taught by aid volunteers, taught by other villagers, using props, seminar style etc. Interviews were conducted through translations by IER scientists Surveys were developed in collaboration with Florence Dunkel and Assa Kante prior to village visits
Interview CLIC (Community Learning and Information Center) and Peace Corps leaders to determine what methods of teaching and visual aids they have found productive Follow up to the Bougoula study - analyzing the three Bambara videos Determine how they are used, whether the villagers liked their content, how they are distributed, and whether or not they found them useful
Extern Rebecca Cooper is given a tour of the village of Sanambele
Externs and mentors work with the villagers of Sanambele Photograph by Denise Dahl
Discussion Village of Sanambele Posters/Books Accompanied by Chief of the Village and Extension Agents Village of Bougoula Radio/Videos Shown by Chief of the Village or Mayor
Understanding the differences between these two villages may help explain these diverse results: Bougoula Is headquarters of the Commune containing 11 villages has a weekly market has housed a CLIC since 2004 Sanambele Is a smaller village in neighboring commune of Dialokoroba villagers travel to commune headquarters such as Dialakorba to sell their market goods In comparing these two villages, one small, and one large, incorporating the Village Chief into the teaching of new information is one of the most important components
Bambara Video/CLIC Analysis According to our surveys: No one in either village had seen any of the three Bambara videos distributed to CLIC organizations Many villagers hadn’t heard of CLICs, and no interviewees in either village had ever used their resources This is caused mainly by the presentation of CLIC information in French and English, while the majority of the villagers speak only Bambara
Extern Rebecca Cooper helps sift and pound millet
Conclusion CLIC organizations were unsuccessful because of language barrier, user cost, and lack of advertising/awareness to the villagers Bambara videos were unsuccessful because villagers were unable to view them Best teaching methods include: demonstrations and letters from village chief and extension agents accompanied by visual aids, such as posters, books, and videos to reinforce new information
Suggestions CLICs Potential to be successful Poor execution Organizations need to: Present their product in the native language of Bambara Demand reasonable prices for the average farmer Advertise their product and make farmers aware of this new resource
Teaching/Training new information or technologies Organizations need to go through the chief of the village, gaining their respect Hands on demonstrations followed by visual aids, such as posters, books, or videos Visual aids need to be left with the villagers as a reference to look back on
This research could potential be the foundation for future aid projects. Through the “farmer first” approach and the use of visual aids, new ideas and technologies may easily transfer between scientist and subsistence farmer.
Acknowledgements My deep appreciation to IER : Kadiatou Gamby Toure Sidiki Traore Abdoulaye Camara Aissata Thera Keriba Coulibaly This project was made possible, in part, through the support provided by USDA Cooperative States Research Extension Education Service (CSREES) Higher Education Challenge Grant Program, no. 2004-38411- 14762, Discovery-Based Undergraduate Opportunities: Facilitating Farmer-to- Farmer Teaching and Learning (F. Dunkel, P.I.) Montana State University Undergraduate Scholars Program, 2007 (Druse) Montana Agricultural Experiment Station No. 161 (F. Dunkel, P.I.) USAID through the Office of Higher Education for Development (HED) under Cooperative Agreement HNE-A-00-97-00059-00. (F. Dunkel, P.I.)