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Mindsets Dr Sherria Hoskins, University of Portsmouth.

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1 Mindsets Dr Sherria Hoskins, University of Portsmouth

2 What is Growing Learners Background to Theories of intelligence (Mindsets) Exploring the existing evidence More info on one of our RCTs Two tips for everyday practice What have we learned What we do now Overview

3 Evidence based educational consultancy based at the University of Portsmouth: – Dr Sherria Hoskins – Dr Victoria Devonshire – Dr Emily Mason-Apps – Dr Frances Warren – Miss Mathilde Chanvin What we have done so far... What is Growing Learners

4 – Worked with PCC to explore why we have lower than average attainment in the city. – Worked with over 100 schools EEF – Randomised control trial. Part of the ‘Closing the Gap’ scheme (funded by National College for Teaching & Leadership) Direct work with schools that request our support.

5 “I don’t divide the world into the weak and the strong, or the successes and the failures... (or the high and low ability) I divide the world into the learners and non learners.” Benjamin Barber

6 Theories of Intelligence

7 Growth Mindset Belief that intelligence is malleable and can develop. Success takes effort and persistence, learning from mistakes and challenges. Fixed Mindset Belief that intelligence is something you are born with. Can’t change it much. What are Mindsets?

8 Fixed MindsetGrowth Mindset Intelligence is a fixed trait & can’t change much Intelligence can be increased through practice Focus on performanceFocus on learning Failure and/or effort perceived as being sign of low ability Not threatened by hard work or failure Choose activities to maximise performance (easy ones to feel clever) Seek new challenges for a sense of achievement Don’t recover well from setbacksMistakes are perceived as a good thing as they help the learning processes Decrease efforts, withdraw or consider cheating (self-protection) View effort and persistence as a necessary part of success Helplessness orientationMastery orientation Approaches to Learning:

9 Exploring the Evidence

10 Plasticity Neurones in the brain transmit information through connections (synapses). The more we keep our brains active through learning new information, the more connections the brain makes. Evidence from Neuroscience UCL - London taxi drivers. Brain scans = larger hippocampus than others Grew as they spent more time in the job. Suggests brain adapts to help them learn ‘The Knowledge’ and store mental maps.

11 Outstanding performance in violinists from the Music Academy of West Berlin in Germany. Students were divided into three groups: 1.The outstanding group (expected to become international solists). These were the children normally described as “super talented” and “naturally” gifted. 2.The extremely good group (expected to end up playing in the world’s top orchestras, but not as star soloists) 3.The least able group (studying to become music teachers- a course with far less stringent entry requirements) Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Romer (2007)

12 Remarkably similar – e.g. age started playing, age they decided to become musicians, number of teachers who had taught them. Dramatic difference between the groups: Number of hours spent practising by age 20 outstanding group = average of 10,000 extremely good group = 8,000 least able group = 2,000 No exceptions to this pattern.

13 Blackwell, Trzesniewski & Dweck (2007) Study 1: Children’s theory of intelligence predicted maths grades when making transition to high school. Pupils with growth mindsets progressed faster and outperformed pupils with fixed mindsets. Study 2: Intervention training (Brainology) 8 week intervention with school children. study skills and mindset workshop, vs only study skills. mindset training promoted positive change in motivation and grades, in comparison to study skills only group.

14 Good, Aronson & Inzlicht (2003) Pupils randomly assigned student mentors growth mindset mentoring vs anti drug mentoring. Mindset mentees increased in maths and reading test scores compared to a control group. Further, girls particularly benefitted in maths scores and narrowed the gender gap. Performance suppressed by stereotype? Boys already positive and performing well in maths.

15 US Research May not be relevant Small numbers One or two schools No teacher intervention Sometimes no control No long term follow up What about the UK?

16 Scottish study

17 The EEF Project... Pupil Intervention Teacher Intervention MindsetStudy Skills INSET WAITING CONTROL

18 What our results show...??

19 Tips on Everyday practice High expectations Focus: resilience, self-sufficiency & good learning Specific plans for growth and development Celebrating mistakes Use of role models Language/praise Modelling How to promote a Growth Mindset

20 The fear of making mistakes and associated shame and embarrassment can stop pupils from trying. Don’t let pupils blame others for failure and mistakes. Make the most of their mistakes, celebrate mistakes! Promote challenge, effort and mistakes as part of everyone’s learning process. When examples of attainment explore the process, effort and mistakes. Give time each week to discuss learning via mistakes (Mistakes Board). Celebrating mistakes

21 … Temporary high self-esteem if performed well but longer term implications: When challenged or fail, pupils don’t know how to put it right, and instead re-evaluate ability Creates low self-esteem/feel bad about themselves Avoidance of task in future Drop in attainment over time watch?v=mGTk6yeh9qE Person/ability focused feedback causes...

22 Mueller & Dweck (1998) Number of Problems solved Carol Dweck talking about praise Carol Dweck talking about praise

23 Give ‘process praise’ Effort Strategy Interpret setbacks as lack of effort, persistence or result of inappropriate strategies Use also ‘task praise’ What is better/worse than the last attempt What is/is not good, realistic, neat, correct etc. about the product Growth feedback

24 A tool to identifying pupils’ learning orientations. Intervention Manuals, Lesson Plans and Materials (6 weeks * 1.5 hrs or flexible) Additional ideas for lessons Early Years, Primary, Secondary, 16+. Bespoke services. Working on a second RCT (120 UK schools – train the trainer). Project with Steve at Portsmouth College. What we now offer.

25 Any questions? Phone us on Visit collaboration/growing-learners/


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