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Exploring Quantum Magnetism through Neutron Scattering What is Quantum Magnetism? Where do we find it? Why is it interesting? Summary & Prospects Collin Broholm, Johns Hopkins University and NIST Center for Neutron Research

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Magnetism & Quantum Magnetism Ferromagnetism : Fundamental & essential collective phenomenon — macroscopic semi-classical dynamics Non-magnetic materials: intra-atomic singlet formation Quantum Magnetism: — Inter-atomic singlet formation — Macroscopic singlet formation — Strong correlations without static order — Emergent quantum particles — Quantum T=0 Phase Transitions

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Overview of quantum magnetism Fundamental Questions: – What types of collective phases are possible – What are the corresponding quasi-particles Elements of the research – Materials Synthesis (bulk and nano-structured) – Advanced Characterization – Theory Applications – Model systems for quantum correlated physics – Sensors and filters via strong collective response – Quantum computing by manipulating emergent quasi-particles

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Probing matter through scattering Single Particle Process Single Particle Process Multi Particle Process Multi Particle Process ћћ Intensity ћћ May 6, 20094ICNS 2009

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Quasi-particles “live” within solids Cu 2 (quinox) 2 Cl 4 ZnCr 2 O 4 Cu(C 4 D 4 N 2 )(NO 3 ) 2 Y 2 BaNiO 5 ≈ 40 mm ≈ 10 mm ≈ 0.1 mm Bound spinons in spin-1 chainFree spinons in spin-1/2 chain May 6, 20095ICNS 2009

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Acknowledgements G. AeppliUCL C. D. BatistaLos Alamos Y. Chen NIST D. C. DenderNIST T. HongORNL M. Kenzelmann PSI C. P. LandeeClarke University K. Lefmann Copenhagen Univ. Y. QiuNIST & Univ. of Maryland D. H. ReichJHU C. Rische Univ. of Copenhagen J. Abalardo-RodriguezNIST & Univ. of Maryland C. StockISIS M. B. StonePenn State University M. M. TurnbullClarke University G. XuBNL I. ZaliznyakBNL Y. ZhaoJHU + many more friends & colleagues

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May 6, 2009 ICNS Decoupled spin pairs: singlet ground state

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May 6, 2009 ICNS A mobile triplet exciton Xu et al PRL (2000)

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May 6, 2009 ICNS A spin-1/2 pair with AFM exchange has a singlet - triplet gap: Description of weakly interacting dimers J Inter-dimer coupling allows coherent triplet propagation and produces well defined dispersion relation Triplets can also be produced in pairs with total S tot =1

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Creating two triplets with one neutron One magnon Two magnons Tennant et al (2000)

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Strongly Interacting Dimers in PHCC (meV) Stone et al. PRB (2001) (C 4 H 12 N 2 )Cu 2 Cl 6 (PHCC) May 6, 2009

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Magnon decay in two-magnon continuum Stone et al. Nature (2006) May 6, 2009

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Neutron Scattering from Spin-1/2 chains Stone et al., PRL (2003) Zaliznyak et al (2004) Tenant, Lake, Nagler (2005) KCuF 3 : orb. order CuPzN: Pyrazine SrCuO2: orb. order

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Spinons on MACS May 6, 2009 NCNR Large monochromator & 20 analyzers Total of 2.7 hours counting time T=1.6 K T=5 K 3.5 hrs Counting 3.5 hrs Counting

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Disintegration of a spin flip Spinon May 6, 2009

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From band-structure to bounded continuum q ( ) /J Q ( ) J May 6, 2009

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Quantum Criticality: T is only energy scale Lake et al (2005)

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Quantum Critical Spin-1/2 chain 0 Damle and Huse PRL (2002) May 6, 2009

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Two & one-particle scattering in spin chains CuCl 2. 2(DMSO): Spin-1/2 chains in a crystal Kenzelmann et al. PRL (2004) May 6, 2009

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Why staggered field yields bound states Zero field state quasi-long range AFM order Without staggered field distant spinons don’t interact With staggered field solitons separate “good” from “bad” domains, which leads to interactions and “soliton” bound state May 6, 2009

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Kagome Corner-sharing tetrahedra Triangular Frustration & weak connectivity stunt growth of correlations Quantum Magnetism Hao & Tchernyshyov (2009)

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Frustrating outcomes Lattice distorts Long range order Weak disorder Spin freezing S. H. Lee et al. (2000) Nakatsuji et al (2006 ) Stock et al. (2009) NiGa 2 S 4 15 K 1.5 K ZnCr 2 O 4 40 K

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Frustration + Fermions = spin liquid La 2 CuO 4 Coldea et al 2001 -ET 2 Cu 2 CN 3 Kurosaki et al (2005)

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Summary Quantum magnetism: beyond spin to collective quantum correlations Stabilized by – Low dimensionality – Frustration – Proximity to metal insulator transition Examples – Spin dimers: Propagating triplet excitons – 2-magnon continuum and magnon decay – Spinons and quantum criticality in spin-1/2 chain – Spin-liquids beyond one dimension? Accelerated progress from new instruments May 6, 2009

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