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Sequentially Triggered Star Formation in OB Associations Thomas Preibisch & Hans Zinnecker Max-Planck-Institute for Radioastronomy, Bonn, Germany Astrophysical.

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Presentation on theme: "Sequentially Triggered Star Formation in OB Associations Thomas Preibisch & Hans Zinnecker Max-Planck-Institute for Radioastronomy, Bonn, Germany Astrophysical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sequentially Triggered Star Formation in OB Associations Thomas Preibisch & Hans Zinnecker Max-Planck-Institute for Radioastronomy, Bonn, Germany Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, Germany Upper Scorpius Upper Centaurus - Lupus  Oph cloud age = 17 Myr generation I age = 5 Myr generation II age <= 1 Myr generation III ISO

2 OB associations: (Ambartsumian 1947) - Unbound stellar groups containing O–B2 stars, Ø ~ pc - Density < 0.1 M  pc -3  unstable against galactic tidal forces  < 30 Myr old Blaauw (1964, 1991): Many OB associations consist of distinct sub-groups with different ages  sequential (triggered ?) formation Ori OB 1 Sco OB 2 Per OB 2 Summary of recent results on OB associations: Protostars and Planets V chapter by Briceno et al. (2006; astro-ph/ )

3 Many observations show star formation near massive stars: Q: Was the formation of the YSOs triggered, or did YSOs form prior to the arrival of the shock waves ? A: Determine ages of the YSOs and compare to shock arrival time OB associations show the result of a recently completed star formation process, star formation history and initial mass function allow a quantitative comparison to models Star formation in irradiated globules: "radiatively driven implosion" Star formation in swept-up shells: "collect & collapse" model Trifid Nebula HST, Hester et al. (1999)  O star OB stars RCW 79 blue: H , red: 8  m Zavagno et al. (2006, A&A 446,171) YSOs

4 Theoretical models for triggering mechanisms in OB associations : 1. Sequentially triggered formation of OB subgroups (Elmegreen & Lada 1977, Lada 1987) Predictions: - Bimodal star formation: low-mass stars form independently  are on average older, show large age spread - IMF variations: younger OB subgroups should have larger fractions of low-mass stars                Age spread among low-mass stars: [ ] Myr [ ] Myr [ ] Myr IMF variations: defict excess of low-mass stars star formation terminated  

5 Theoretical models for triggering mechanisms in OB associations: 2. Radiation-driven implosion of globules near OB stars (Bertoldi 1989; Lefloch & Lazareff 1994; Kessel-Deynet & Burkert 2003) Predictions: - OB stars form first, are older than low mass stars - Age gradients: stars close to the O star are older than those further away (see also next talk by W.P. Chen) Hester & Desh (2005)     Ages of the low-mass stars: 7, 5, 3, 1 Myr

6 Theoretical models for triggering mechanisms in OB associations: 3. Supernova shock wave compression of cloud (e.g. Foster & Boss 1996, ApJ 468, 784; Vanhalla & Cameron 1998, ApJ 508, 291) At suitable distances of ~ pc, where v shock = km/sec, cloud collapse can be triggered by supernova shock waves Predictions: - High- and low-mass stars have same age - Small age spread (since v shock > 20 km/sec) - Age difference of ~ Myr between subgroups NEXT: Predictions versus observations

7 D= 144 pc 49 B-stars Upper Scorpius D = 142 pc 66 B-stars Upper Centaurus - Lupus D = 116 pc 42 B-stars Lower Centaurus - Crux 10  The nearest OB association: Scorpius - Centaurus (Sco OB2) Hipparcos revealed B to F stars de Zeeuw et al (1999, AJ 117, 354) de Bruijne (1999, MNRAS 310, 585) 25 pc  Sco

8  = 5 Myr Upper Scorpius  = 17 Myr Upper Centaurus - Lupus   = 16 Myr Lower Centaurus - Crux 10  The nearest OB association: Scorpius - Centaurus (Sco OB2) 25 pc  Sco Ages of the massive stars from MS turnoff What about the low-mass stars ? de Geus et al. (1989, A&A 216,44) Mamajek et al.(2002, AJ 124,1670)

9 Upper Scorpius 10  25 pc  Sco Huge field star confusion in extended OB associations: Young low-mass members must be individually identified by spectroscopy (6708Å Lithium lines) - X-ray selected candidates: Walter et al (1994, AJ 107,692) Preibisch et al (1998, A&A 333,619) - Survey with multi-object spectrograph 2dF: Preibisch et al (2002 AJ 124, 404):  250 low-mass members (representative sample) higher-mass stars from Hipparcos :  364 known members SpT = B M6, M = 20 M  M  Statistically robust & well defined sample Individual spectral types and extinctions known: derive IMF and star formation history from HRD The stellar population of Upper Scorpius

10 HR Diagram for Upper Sco 5 Myr isochrone  High- mass and low-mass stars are coeval Spread of isochronal ages Preibisch et al (2002, AJ 124, 404) Reasons for spread of isochronal ages: - distance spread:  D / D = 30 pc / 145 pc ~ ± 0.25 mag - unresolved binaries: <~ mag - photometric variability <~ ± 0.3 mag  HRD consistent with no age spread,  < 1-2 Myr - Mass function is consistent with field star IMF

11 age of the high-mass stars: 5 Myr diameter: ~ 30 pc age of the low-mass stars: 5 Myr 1D velocity dispersion: 1.3 km/sec age spread < 1-2 Myr  lateral crossing time ~ 25 Myr  age spread << crossing time  external agent coordinated onset of star formation over the full spatial extent Implications on the star formation process ScoCen is surrounded by several H I shells De Geus (1992, A&A 262, 258) Wind & supernova driven expanding superbubble from UCL crossed Upper Sco ~ 5 Myr ago De Geus (1992, A&A 262, 258):

12 Scenario for the star formation history de Geus (1992, A&A 262, 258); Preibisch & Zinnecker (1999, AJ 117, 2381) Supernova in USco star formation triggered star formation terminated cloud fully dispersed star formation in  Oph triggered Supernova & wind driven shock wave from UCL crosses USco cloud Wind & ionizing radiation of the massive stars disperse the cloud Supernova & wind driven shock wave from USco reaches  Oph cloud

13 Scenario for the star formation history de Geus (1992, A&A 262, 258); Preibisch & Zinnecker (1999, AJ 117, 2381) Supernova in USco star formation triggered star formation terminated cloud fully dispersed star formation in  Oph triggered Supernova & wind driven shock wave from UCL crosses USco cloud "Any theory of star formation is incomplete without a corresponding theory of cloud formation" (Elmegreen & Lada 1977) Hartmann et al (2001, ApJ 562,852) and others: Molecular clouds are short-lived structures, i.e.do not exist for > 10 Myr without forming stars and "wait for a trigger" Wind & ionizing radiation of the massive stars disperse the cloud Supernova & wind driven shock wave from USco reaches  Oph cloud

14 Rapid formation of molecular clouds and stars Ballesteros-Paredes et al.(1999, ApJ 527,285); Hartmann et al.(2001 ApJ 562, 852); Clark et al.(2005, MNRAS 359,809) Large-scale flows in the ISM accumulate and compress gas to form transient molecular clouds Wind & supernova shocks waves create coherent large-scale velocity fields,  formation of large structures in which star formation can be triggered nearly simultaneously Hartmann et al. (2001 ApJ 562, 852) Ballesteros-Paredes et al. (1999, ApJ 527,285)

15 OB star winds in UCL create expanding superbubble (v ~ 5 km/sec) Interaction with ISM flows starts to sweep up clouds Triggered cloud & star formation in ScoCen T = - 14 Myr 30 pc        UCL

16 After supernovae in UCL added energy & momentum to the expanding superbubble, the shock wave (~ 30 km/sec) crossed the USco cloud, increased pressure triggered star formation in USco Triggered cloud & star formation in ScoCen T = - 5 Myr        60 pc UCL

17 Triggered cloud & star formation in ScoCen Lupus I cloud generation III Shock wave from USco superbubble triggers star formation in  Oph and Lupus I clouds T = - 1 Myr Upper Centaurus - Lupus generation I Upper Scorpius generation II  Ophiuchus generation III

18 Observation: Determination of centroid space motions of the groups: de Bruijne (1999, MNRAS 310, 585)  Upper Sco moves away from UCL with v ~ 5 (±3) km/sec Model Predictions I: Stellar groups triggered in swept-up clouds move away from the trigger source Hipparcos proper motions of USco and UCL members + Centroid space motion in the rest-frame of UCL de Zeeuw et al (1999, AJ 117, 354) Model versus observations

19 adapted from: Mamajek & Feigelson (2001,in: Young Stars Near Earth, ASP 244, p. 104; astro-ph/ ) Observation: Mamajek & Feigelson (2001) Several young stellar groups: -  Cha cluster - TW Hydra Association - CrA cloud move away from UCL with v ~ 10 km/sec were located near the edge of UCL 12 Myr ago (when SN exploded) X (pc) UCL Y (pc) X (pc) T = - 12 Myr UCL CrA TW Hya  Cha Y (pc) T = 0 (today) Model Predictions I: Stellar groups triggered in swept-up clouds move away from the trigger source Model versus observations

20 USco                   UCL           S Observation: Lupus I cloud located at interface of USco and UCL (post-SN, wind-driven) superbubbles Model Predictions II: Elongated star forming clouds form at the intersection of two expanding flows Dust extinction map from Dobashi et al. 2005, PASJ 57,S1 Model versus observations

21 How general are these findings? Several OB associations show subgroup sequences of three generations that provide evidence for triggered formation, e.g. ScoCen: UCL  USco   Oph / Lupus I Cep OB2: NGC 7160  IC 1396  VDB 142 Superbubbles in W3/W4 (Oey et al. 2005, AJ 129, 393) BUT: Some associations also contain subgroups with similar ages e.g.: ScoCen: UCL [17 Myr] - LCC [16 Myr]

22 Supernova-driven expanding H I shell v = 22 km/sec Gorjian et al. (2004,ApJS 154, 275) Extragalactic example of supernova triggering in OB associations: Hen 206 (LMC) Triggered formation of several new OB subgroups OB association NGC 2018: age ~ 10 Myr 80 pc Spitzer image blue:  m, cyan: 5.8  m, green: 8.0  m, red: 24  m optical image Explanation for subgroups with the same age (e.g., ScoCen: UCL [17 Myr] - LCC [16 Myr] )

23 How general are these findings? Results for well investigated OB associations: (Sco OB2, Cep OB2, Ori OB1) Briceno et al. (2006; Protostars & Planets V chapter; astro-ph/ ) - IMF of most OB subgroups consistent with field IMF, no good evidence for IMF variations - Low- and high mass stars have the same ages, have formed together - In most regions, age spreads are (much) smaller than the crossing time  consistent with models of large-scale triggering by shock waves Supernova (+wind) driven shock waves play an important role, but other triggering mechanisms are also at work in some regions:

24 Cep OB 2 association: HD (O6) IC 1396 (4 Myr) class 0 / class I protostars NGC 7160 (10 Myr) IRAS 12  m 11 Spitzer  m,  m, 24  m Reach et al (2004, ApJS 154, 385) <1 Myr VDB pc Sicilia-Aguilar et al (2004, AJ 128, 805; 2005 AJ 130, 188) Reach et al (2004, ApJS 154, 385) VDB 142: Radiation-driven implosion of globule (no supernova triggering!) The globule will form a small stellar group, but no OB subgroup!

25 Conclusions: OB subgroups with well defined age sequences and small internal age spreads suggest large-scale triggered formation scenarios. (Supernova/wind driven shock waves) Expanding bubbles  coherent large-scale ISM flows  new clouds Supernova shock waves  cloud compression  triggered formation of whole OB subgroups (several 1000 stars). Other triggering mechanisms (e.g. radiation-driven implosion of globules) may operate simultaneously, but seem to form only small groups of stars (i.e. are secondary processes). Note: Our Sun formed in an OB association ! Supernova shock wave injected short-lived radionucleids (e.g. 26 Al). (Cameron & Truran 1977; Hester & Desh 2005)

26 THE END

27 Interpretation of the HR Diagram: Age spread or no age spread ?? Perfect world: no errors, no uncertainties age histogram simulated HRD Coeval population of 5 Myr old stars

28 Interpretation of the HR Diagram: Age spread or no age spread ??  false impression of a large age spread and an accelerating star formation rate in an actually perfectly coeval population ! Perfect world: no errors, no uncertainties Reality: - photometric variability & errors - unresolved binaries - spread of individual distances center: 145 pc front: 130 pc back: 160 pc Upper Sco  Analysis for Upper Sco: no detectable age spread,  = 5 Myr (±1-2 Myr) age histogram simulated HRD Coeval population of 5 Myr old stars

29                Ori OB 1C members ? (~ 5 Myr) e.g. Orion Nebula Cluster: Distributed T Tauri stars: ~ Myr Trapezium cluster stars: ~ 1 Myr BN complex, OMC-S protostars: <~ 0.1 Myr To Earth simulated side-view: O'Dell 2001 ARAA 39, 99 Age sequences / spreads and projection effects 15 Myr 5 Myr 1 Myr line-of-sight no observed age sequence false impression of a large age spread Myr

30 The Supergiant Shell Region in IC 2574 Cannon et al. (2005, ApJ 630, L37) Stewart & Walter (2000, AJ 120,1794) U + V + I Expanding shell triggers a second generation of OB associations on its rim N central OB association total mass ~ M  age: ~ 11 Myr young OB associations M ~ M  ages ~ Myr cavity surrounded by expanding shell Ø ~ 800 pc, M ~ 10 6 M  v ~ 25 km/sec N

31 Note: most massive clouds are at bubble intersection Yamaguchi et al. (2001, ApJ 553, L185) shell diameter 1.9 kpc v(exp) = 10 – 40 km/sec center: 400 OB stars ages 9-16 Myr stars at the rim are < 6 Myr H  image, green contours: CO open circles: > 10 Myr clusters, filled circles: < 10 Myr old clusters The Superbubble LMC4

32 Only 11 of 73 EGGs have YSOs < 100 stars will eventually form in the pillars, much less than the stellar population of the exciting OB cluster NGC 6611 HST optical image; Hester et al. (1996) "Pillars of Creation" in the Eagle Nebula (M16) VLT near-infrared image; McCaughrean & Andersen (2002) Detection of evaporating gaseous globules "EGGs"; sites of triggered star formation ?

33 Triggered massive star formation in RCW 79 Zavagno et al. (2006, A&A 446,171): blue: H , red: Spitzer 8  m Data consistent with "collect & collapse model" fragmentation of the shocked dense layer around an expanding H II region Whitworth et al (1994) central OB cluster, including an O4 star (~60 M  ) compact H II region, ionized by an O9 star (~20 M  ), contains many class I protostars Radius of H II region = 6.4 pc for n ~ 2000 cm -3   dyn = 1.7 Myr collected layer fragmented ~10 5 yr ago, consistent with ages of YSOs

34 30 Dor – NGC 2070 ( 40 O3 stars, M , age = 2-3 Myr ) 1' 15 pc Radiation of the massive stars in the central cluster triggers star formation in the nebular filaments (Rubio et al. 1998) "Two stage starburst"

35 22 16 pc Ori association Ori (O8) + 60 B-type stars, ~ 6 Myr Dolan & Mathieu (2001, AJ 121, 2124) Dolan & Mathieu (2002, AJ 123, 387) - global IMF consistent with field IMF - low-mass stars concentrate - near Ori, ages ~ 1 – 6 Myr no ongoing star formation, age spread probably real - near the dark clouds B30+B35 continuing star formation, ages ~ Myr IRAS  m star formation begins Star formation history: 1 Myr ago, a supernova explosion terminated the star formation process near the center, but there is still ongoing star formation in the dark clouds B30 and B35 Ori B30 B35

36 200 OB stars, age ~ 3 Myr R cavity = 60 pc Maiz-Apellaniz et al. (2004, AJ 128,1196) NGC 604 (in M33)

37 Superbubbles in W3/W4 Oey et al. (2005, AJ 129,393) IC 1805: 1-3 Myr W4 W3 "230 pc shell" age ~ 6 – 10 Myr W3 Main: 10 5 yr W3 North: 10 5 yr W3 OH: 10 5 yr IC 1795: 3-5 Myr

38 UCL Upper Sco Observation: Initial configuration for Upper Sco: from proper-motion back-tracing, Blaauw (1991) elongation as signature of a swept up cloud Model Predictions I : swept-up clouds should be elongated along the direction of the shock front                 Model versus observations

39 Ori OB 1 association Brice ñ o et al ( 2005, AJ 129, 907 ) identify 197 low-mass members of Ori OB 1a and 1b derived ages: 1a: ~10 Myr, 1b: ~5 Myr  High- and low-mass stars are coeval 1a (~ 10 Myr) 1b (~ 3 Myr) 1c (~ 4 Myr) 1d (= ONC) Ages of the OB stars from Brown et al (1994, A&A 289, 101 ) 22 16 pc


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