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To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Process.

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Presentation on theme: "To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Process."— Presentation transcript:

1 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Process Performance and Quality Chapter 5

2 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Topics Total Quality Management (TQM)Total Quality Management (TQM) Statistical Quality Control (SQC)Statistical Quality Control (SQC) –Statistical Process Control (SPC) –Acceptance Sampling Six SigmaSix Sigma International Quality DocumentationInternational Quality Documentation

3 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. The Costs of Poor Quality  Prevention Costs  Appraisal Costs  Internal Failure Costs  External Failure Costs

4 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. TQM Three principles of TQMThree principles of TQM –Customer Satisfaction –Employee Involvement –Continuous Improvement

5 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Customer-Driven Definitions of Quality  Conformance to Specifications  Value  Fitness for Use  Support  Psychological Impressions

6 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Cultural changeCultural change TeamsTeams Employee empowermentEmployee empowerment Special-purpose teamsSpecial-purpose teams Self-managing teamsSelf-managing teams Employee Involvement

7 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Continuous Improvement BenchmarkingBenchmarking Train employees in SPC methodsTrain employees in SPC methods Build teams and employee involvementBuild teams and employee involvement Utilize problem solving toolsUtilize problem solving tools Sense of operator ownershipSense of operator ownership

8 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Plan Do Check ActDemingWheel Figure 5.3

9 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Customer satisfaction TQM Wheel Figure 5.2

10 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Common causesCommon causes Assignable causesAssignable causes Statistical Process Control

11 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Common Causes Mean Standard Deviation/ Spread

12 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Assignable Causes (a) Location GramsAverage Figure 5.4 Average

13 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Assignable Causes (b) Spread GramsAverage Figure 5.4

14 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Assignable Causes (c) Shape GramsAverage Figure 5.4

15 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Sample Means and the Process Distribution Figure 5.5 MeanProcessdistribution Time Distribution of sample means

16 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Charts UCLNominal LCL Samples Figure 5.6 Assignable causes likely 123

17 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Using Control Charts for Process Improvement  Sample the process  When changes are indicated, find the assignable cause  Eliminate problems, incorporate improvements  Repeat the procedure

18 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Chart Examples Nominal UCL LCL Sample number Variations Figure 5.7 (a)

19 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Run Test Trend of 5 or more pointsTrend of 5 or more points Sudden changesSudden changes 5 or more consecutive points above or below mean5 or more consecutive points above or below mean Any one point outside the control limitsAny one point outside the control limits

20 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Chart Examples Nominal UCL LCL Sample number Variations Figure 5.7 (b)

21 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Chart Examples Nominal UCL LCL Sample number Variations Figure 5.7 (c)

22 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Chart Examples Nominal UCL LCL Sample number Variations Figure 5.7 (d)

23 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Chart Examples Nominal UCL LCL Sample number Variations Figure 5.7 (e)

24 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Charts for Variables West Allis Industries

25 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Charts for Variables Example 5.1 Sample Number1234R x Special Metal Screw _

26 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Charts for Variables Example 5.1 Sample Number1234R x Special Metal Screw _ – =0.0018

27 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Charts for Variables Example 5.1 Sample Number1234R x Special Metal Screw _ – =0.0018

28 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Charts for Variables Example 5.1 Sample Number1234R x Special Metal Screw _ ( )/4= )/4= – =0.0018

29 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Charts for Variables Sample Sample Observation Number1234R x R = x = Special Metal Screw Example 5.1 = _

30 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Example 5.1 Control Charts for Variables Control Charts – Special Metal Screw R -Charts R = UCL R = D 4 R LCL R = D 3 R

31 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Example 5.1 Control Charts for Variables Table 5.1 Control Chart Factors Factor for UCLFactor forFactor Size ofand LCL forLCL forUCL for Samplex-ChartsR-ChartsR-Charts (n)(A 2 )(D 3 )(D 4 )

32 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Example 5.1 Control Charts for Variables Control Charts—Special Metal Screw R -Charts R = D 4 = D 3 = 0 UCL R = D 4 R LCL R = D 3 R

33 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Example 5.1 Control Charts for Variables Control Charts—Special Metal Screw R -Charts R = D 4 = D 3 = 0 UCL R = (0.0021) = in. UCL R = D 4 R LCL R = D 3 R

34 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Example 5.1 Control Charts for Variables Control Charts—Special Metal Screw R -Charts R = D 4 = D 3 = 0 UCL R = (0.0021) = in. LCL R = 0 (0.0021) = 0 in. UCL R = D 4 R LCL R = D 3 R

35 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Example 5.1 Control Charts for Variables Control Charts—Special Metal Screw R -Charts R = D 4 = D 3 = 0 UCL R = (0.0021) = in. LCL R = 0 (0.0021) = 0 in. UCL R = D 4 R LCL R = D 3 R

36 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Range Chart - Special Metal Screw Figure 5.8

37 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Example 5.1 Control Charts for Variables Control Charts—Special Metal Screw X -Charts UCL x = x + A 2 R LCL x = x - A 2 R = = R = x = =

38 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Example 5.1 Control Charts for Variables Control Charts—Special Metal Screw X -Charts UCL x = x + A 2 R LCL x = x - A 2 R = = R = x = = Table 5.1 Control Chart Factors Factor for UCLFactor forFactor Size ofand LCL forLCL forUCL for Samplex-ChartsR-ChartsR-Charts (n)(A 2 )(D 3 )(D 4 )

39 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Example 5.1 Control Charts for Variables Control Charts—Special Metal Screw x -Charts UCL x = x + A 2 R LCL x = x - A 2 R = = R = A 2 = x = =

40 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Example 5.1 Control Charts for Variables Control Charts—Special Metal Screw x -Charts UCL x = (0.0021) = in. UCL x = x + A 2 R LCL x = x - A 2 R = = R = A 2 = x = =

41 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Example 5.1 Control Charts for Variables Control Charts—Special Metal Screw x -Charts UCL x = (0.0021) = in. LCL x = – (0.0021) = in. UCL x = x + A 2 R LCL x = x - A 2 R = = R = A 2 = x = =

42 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. x -Chart— Special Metal Screw Figure 5.9

43 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. x -Chart— Special Metal Screw Figure 5.9   Sample the process   Find the assignable cause   Eliminate the problem   Repeat the cycle

44 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Charts for Variables Using  UCL x = (1.5)/ 6 = 6.20 min UCL x = 5.0 – 1.96(1.5)/ 6 = 3.80 min Example 5.2 UCL x = x + z  x LCL x = x – z  x  x =  /  n == Sunny Dale Bank x =5.0 minutes  =1.5 minutes n =6 customers z =1.96 =

45 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Charts for Attributes HOMETOWN BANK Hometown Bank

46 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Charts for Attributes Hometown Bank UCL p = p + z  p LCL p = p – z  p  p = p (1 – p )/ n Example 5.3

47 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Example 5.3 Control Charts for Attributes Hometown Bank UCL p = p + z  p LCL p = p - z  p  p = p (1 - p )/ n SampleWrong NumberAccount Number Total 147 Total defectives Total observations p = n = 2500

48 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Example 5.3 Control Charts for Attributes Hometown Bank UCL p = p + z  p LCL p = p - z  p  p = p (1 - p )/ n SampleWrong NumberAccount Number Total (2500) p = n = 2500

49 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Example 5.3 Control Charts for Attributes Hometown Bank UCL p = p + z  p LCL p = p - z  p  p = p (1 - p )/ n SampleWrong NumberAccount Number Total 147 p = n = 2500

50 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Example 5.3 Control Charts for Attributes Hometown Bank UCL p = p + z  p LCL p = p - z  p  p = p (1 - p )/ n SampleWrongProportion NumberAccount NumberDefective Total 147 p = n = 2500

51 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Charts for Attributes Hometown Bank UCL p = p + z  p LCL p = p – z  p  p = p (1 – p )/ n n = 2500 p = Example 5.3

52 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Charts for Attributes Hometown Bank UCL p = p + z  p LCL p = p – z  p  p = (1 – )/2500 n = 2500 p = Example 5.3

53 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Charts for Attributes Hometown Bank UCL p = p + z  p LCL p = p – z  p  p = n = 2500 p = Example 5.3

54 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Charts for Attributes Hometown Bank  p = n = 2500 p = Example 5.3 UCL p = (0.0014) LCL p = – 3(0.0014)

55 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. UCL p = LCL p = Control Charts for Attributes Hometown Bank  p = n = 2500 p = Example 5.3

56 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. p -Chart Wrong Account Numbers Figure 5.10

57 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. p -Chart Wrong Account Numbers Figure 5.10   Sample the process   Find the assignable cause   Eliminate the problem   Repeat the cycle

58 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Charts for Attributes Woodland Paper Company

59 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Charts for Attributes c = 20 z = 2 UCL c = c + z c LCL c = c – z c Example 5.4 Woodland Paper Company

60 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Charts for Attributes Example 5.4 c = 20 z = 2 UCL c = LCL c = 20 – 2 20 Woodland Paper Company

61 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Charts for Attributes Example 5.4 c = 20 z = 2 UCL c = LCL c = Woodland Paper Company

62 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Charts for Attributes Example 5.4 Woodland Paper Company

63 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Charts for Attributes Woodland Paper Company Example 5.4   Sample the process   Find the assignable cause   Incorporate the improvement   Repeat the cycle

64 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved Minutes Upperspecification LowerspecificationNominalvalue Process Capability (a) Process is capable Figure 5.12 Process distribution

65 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Process Capability (b) Process is not capable Minutes Upperspecification LowerspecificationNominalvalue Figure 5.12 Process distribution

66 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Lowerspecification Mean Upperspecification Nominal value Process Capability Six sigma Four sigma Two sigma Figure 5.13

67 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Process Capability C pk = Minimum of Upper specification – x 3  x – Lower specification 3 ,== Cp =Cp =Cp =Cp = Upper specification - Lower specification 6  Process Capability Ratio Process Capability Index

68 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Process Capability Intensive Care Lab Upper specification = 30 minutes Lower specification = 20 minutes Average service = 26.2 minutes  = 1.35 minutes Example 5.5

69 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Process Capability Intensive Care Lab Upper specification = 30 minutes Lower specification = 20 minutes Average service = 26.2 minutes  = 1.35 minutes Example 5.5 C pk = Minimum of ProcessCapabilityIndex Upper specification – x 3  x – Lower specification 3 ,==

70 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Process Capability Intensive Care Lab Upper specification = 30 minutes Lower specification = 20 minutes Average service = 26.2 minutes  = 1.35 minutes Example 5.5 ProcessCapabilityIndex C pk = Minimum of 26.2 – (1.35), 30.0 – (1.35)

71 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Process Capability Intensive Care Lab Upper specification = 30 minutes Lower specification = 20 minutes Average service = 26.2 minutes  = 1.35 minutes Example 5.5 ProcessCapabilityIndex C pk = Minimum of 1.53, 0.94

72 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Process Capability Intensive Care Lab Upper specification = 30 minutes Lower specification = 20 minutes Average service = 26.2 minutes  = 1.35 minutes Example 5.5 ProcessCapabilityIndex C pk = 0.94 ProcessCapabilityRatio Cp =Cp =Cp =Cp = Upper specification - Lower specification Lower specification 6 

73 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Process Capability Intensive Care Lab Upper specification = 30 minutes Lower specification = 20 minutes Average service = 26.2 minutes  = 1.35 minutes Example 5.5 ProcessCapabilityIndex C pk = 0.94 ProcessCapabilityRatio Cp =Cp =Cp =Cp = (1.35)

74 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Process Capability Intensive Care Lab Upper specification = 30 minutes Lower specification = 20 minutes Average service = 26.2 minutes  = 1.35 minutes Example 5.5 ProcessCapabilityIndex C pk = 0.94 ProcessCapabilityRatio C p = 1.23

75 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Process Capability Intensive Care Lab Upper specification = 30 minutes Lower specification = 20 minutes Average service = 26.1 minutes  = 1.20 minutes Example 5.5 ProcessCapabilityIndexProcessCapabilityRatio C pk = 1.08 C p = 1.39 After process modification

76 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Taguchi's Quality Loss Function Figure 5.14 Loss (dollars) LowerNominalUpper specificationvaluespecification

77 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Six Sigma Improvement Model Define the current process using characteristics critical to customer satisfaction and determine gapsDefine the current process using characteristics critical to customer satisfaction and determine gaps Measure the work processes that affect the gapMeasure the work processes that affect the gap Analyze the data focusing on process analysisAnalyze the data focusing on process analysis Improve the processImprove the process Control the revised process to maintain new performance levelsControl the revised process to maintain new performance levels

78 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Six Sigma Implementation Top Down CommitmentTop Down Commitment Measurement Systems to Track ProgressMeasurement Systems to Track Progress Tough Goal SettingTough Goal Setting EducationEducation CommunicationCommunication Customer PrioritiesCustomer Priorities ASQ 6 Sigma Forum

79 To Accompany Krajewski & Ritzman Operations Management: Strategy and Analysis, Seventh Edition © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. ISO9000 ISO14000 International Quality Documentation Environmental Management SystemsEnvironmental Management Systems Environmental Performance EvaluationEnvironmental Performance Evaluation Environmental LabelingEnvironmental Labeling Life-Cycle AssessmentLife-Cycle Assessment


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