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DESpec: Key Science Goals Ofer Lahav University College London - DES and needs for spectroscopy per probe - The landscape of spectroscopic surveys - Improving DE FoM with DESpec+DES - DE vs. Modified Gravity with DESpec+DES - Neutrino Mass with DESpec+DES - Required calculations and challenges ahead

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What will be the next paradigm shift? Vacuum energy (cosmological constant)? Dynamical scalar field? –w=p/ – for cosmological constant: w = -1 Modified Gravity? Inhomogeneous Universe? What if cosmological constant after all? Multiverse? The Anthropic Principle?

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The Landscape of Surveys 2011-2020 Photometric surveys: DES*, VISTA, Pan-STARRS, HSC, Skymapper, PAU*, LSST*, … Spetroscopic surveys: WiggleZ, BOSS, e-BOSS, BigBOSS*, DESpec*,HETDEX*, Subaru/Sumire*, VISTA/spec*, SKA, … Space Missions: Euclid vs. WFIRST (*) Talks at this meeting

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The Dark Energy http://www.darkenergysurvey.org http://www.darkenergysurvey.org

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The Dark Energy Survey 4 complementary techniques: Cluster Counts Weak Lensing Large Scale Structure Supernovae Ia 8-band survey 5000 deg 2 grizY + JHK from VHS 300 million photometric redshifts Survey 2012-2017 (525 nights) Blanco 4-meter at CTIO First Light: October 2011 !

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DES Science Committee SC chair: O. Lahav Large Scale Structure: E. Gaztanaga & W. Percival Weak Lensing: S. Bridle & B. Jain Clusters: T. McKay & J. Mohr SN Ia: J. Marriner & B. Nichol Photo-z: F. Castander & H. Lin Simulations: G. Evrard & A. Kravtsov Galaxy Evolution: D. Thomas & R. Wechsler QSO: P. Martini & R. McMahon Strong Lensing: L. Buckley-Geer & M. Makler Milky Way: B. Santiago & B. Yanny Theory & Combined Probes: W. Hu & J. Weller The SC reports to the MC, chaired by DES Director J. Frieman

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Photo-z – Spec-z -Dark Energy cross talk Approximately, for a photo-z slice: ( w/ w) = 5 ( z/ z) = 5 ( z /z) N s -1/2 => the target accuracy in w and photo-z scatter z dictate the number of required spectroscopic redshifts N s =10 5 -10 6

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Excess power on Gpc scale: systematics or new physics? Thomas, Abdalla & Lahav (2011) Using MegaZ-LRG (ANNz Photo-z)

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Standard rulers

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Redshift Distortion as a test of Modified Gravity Guzzo et al. 2008

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Credit: Chris Blake

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DESpec: Spectroscopic follow up of DES Proposed Dark Energy Spectrometer (DESpec) 4000–fibre $40M instrument for the 4m Blanco telescope in Chile (same as DES) – Tom Diehl’s talk 10 million galaxy spectra, target list from DES, starting 2017 Spectral range approx 550 to 1080nm, R=1500 DES+DESpec can improve DE FoM by several DES+DESpec can distinguish DE from ModGrav In the UK we submitted SoI to STFC, alongside 4 other SoI’s on spectroscopic surveys

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Possible DESpec survey strategies (A) 100% spectroscopic completeness of the DES galaxies to r=21 mag, with redshift precision of 50 km/sec (B) The above plus 50% completeness to r=22.5 mag evenly distributed over all redshifts bins (using photo-z information to distribute the target selection in redshift) (C) Redshift precision of ~300km/s with 100% completeness to r=22 mag

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Questions presented to DES WGs How significant it is to have the spectroscopic follow up for your probe? How would the DE FoM be improved for your probe? What other analyses can be done with spectroscopy (eg redshift distortion, removing of intrinsic alignments for WL, galaxy properties, etc.) What magnitude and colour cuts, survey area and spectral resolution would be ideal for your science? Any other clever ideas for utilizing specroscopy?

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DESpec: benefits per probe Photo-z/spec TF: better photo-z calibration (Abdalla) LSS: RSD and radial BAO (Percival), FoM improved by several (3-6) Clusters: better redshifts and velocity dispersions (Gerke), FoM up by several WL: little improvement for FoM (as projected mass, but may help with IA) WL+LSS: a lot for both DE and for ModGrav (Gaztanaga, Kirk, Bacon) SN Ia: Spectra of host galaxies and for photo-z training, improving FoM by 2 (Sako) Galaxy Evolution: galaxy properties and star-formation history (Thomas) Strong Lensing: improved cluster mass models

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LSS improvement with DESpec Percival & Samushia FoM (DESpec+DES4+II+Planck) / FoM(DES4+II+Planck) = 3 - 6 Assume for 10 million spectra over 0.2

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DES(WL) + DESpec(LSS) 10 million spectra with uniform density over 0.2 < z < 1.7 Kirk, Lahav & Bridle, in prep Note these are sensitive to assumed priors

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Deviations from standard GR? Lensing is sensitive to the sum of potentials, while velocities respond to the temporal potential Reyes et al. (Nature, 2010) Claimed GR is confirmed from lensing and galaxy velocities

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Dark Energy vs Modifed Gravity DES-like (WL, clusters, SN, BAO) Assumed DEAssumed Mod Grav Shapiro et al. (2010)

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Combining imaging & spectroscopy to constrain modified gravity Guzik, Jain & Takada 2009

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Neutrinos decoupled when they were still relativistic, hence they wiped out structure on small scales k > k nr = 0.026 (m /1 eV) 1/2 m 1/2 h/Mpc CDM+ 1.9 eV neutrinos CDM h eV Agarwal & Feldman 2010

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Neutrino mass from MegaZ-LRG 700,000 galaxies within 3.3 (Gpc/h)^3 Thomas, Abdalla & Lahav, PRL(2010) 0.05 < Total mass < 0.28 eV (95% CL)

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Total Neutrino Mass DES+Planck vs. KATRIN M < 0.1 eV M < 0.6 eV t Lahav, Kiakotou, Abdalla and Blake (2010) 0910.4714 Very interesting if DESpec+DES+Planck can reach 0.05eV

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Calculations needed for DESpec+DES Standard DE FoM with careful attention to k-range, systematics and to priors, including Planck Modified Gravity vs. DE (new metrics needed) and neutrino mass Impact of spectral range and resolution on the probes Optimal survey strategy Quantify the benefits of same sky (phase correlations) for DES and DESpec * Impact of DESpec on future surveys (e.g. LSST and Euclid)

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THE END

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DES Synergy with VISTA (8 filters together) 500 sq deg of the DES footprint (Stripe 82 and SPT region) already observed in J, H, K (median depth 21.0, 20.8, 20.4) 850 sq deg by March 2011 M. Banerji and R. McMahon

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DES Area and Depth: Synergy with South Pole Telescope South Pole Telescope (10m, bolometer array, 150, 250, 270 GHz): 2500 sq. deg. Survey (to end of 2011) to detect ~1,000 clusters through Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect Dark Energy Survey: measure photometric redshifts for these clusters to z ~ 1-1.3 Galactic Dust Map

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Dark Energy Science Program Four Probes of Dark Energy Galaxy Clusters clusters to z>1 SZ measurements from SPT Sensitive to growth of structure and geometry Weak Lensing Shape measurements of 300 million galaxies Sensitive to growth of structure and geometry Large-scale Structure 300 million galaxies to z = 1 and beyond Sensitive to geometry Supernovae 15 sq deg time-domain survey ~3000 well-sampled SNe Ia to z ~1 Sensitive to geometry Plus QSOs, Strong Lensing, Milky Way, Galaxy Evolution

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Neutrino mass from DES:LSS & Planck Lahav, Kiakotou, Abdalla & Blake 2010 (0910.4714) Input: M =0.24 eV Output: M =0.24 +- 0.12 eV (95% CL)

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