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Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Chapter 4: Attention and Consciousness.

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Presentation on theme: "Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Chapter 4: Attention and Consciousness."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Chapter 4: Attention and Consciousness

2 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Some Questions of Interest Can we actively process information, even if we are not aware of doing so? If so, what do we do, and how do we do it? What are some of the functions of attention?

3 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Some Questions of Interest What are some theories cognitive psychologists have developed to explain attentional processes? What have cognitive psychologists learned about attention by studying the human brain?

4 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Attention Is… The means by which we actively process a limited amount of information

5 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Main Functions of Attention Signal detection and vigilance Search Selective attention Divided attention

6 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Measure sensitivity to a target’s presence Signal Detection Theory (SDT) PresentAbsent PresentHit False Alarm AbsentMiss Correct Rejection Decision Signal

7 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Vigilance and SDT Vigilance is attending to a set of stimuli over a length of time in order to detect a target signal Vigilance decreases rapidly over time (fatigue), thus misses and false alarms increase

8 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Search Actively searching for a target Number of targets and distracters influence accuracy Feature search versus conjunctive search

9 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Conjunctive Search Find the letter T –Which panel is easier?

10 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Feature Search Find the letter O –Easier or harder than the previous one?

11 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Feature-Integration Theory (FIT) Individual feature processing is done in parallel –Simultaneous processing is done on the whole display and if feature is present, we detect it Conjunctive searching requires attention to the integration or combination of the features –Attention to particular combination of features must be done sequentially to detect presence of a certain combination

12 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Another Feature Search T T T T T T T Is there a red T in the display? T T Target is defined by a single feature According to feature integration theory, the target should “pop out” No attention required T T T T T T T T

13 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Another Conjunction Search X T T X T T T Is there a red T in the display? X X Target is defined by two features: shape and color According to FIT, the features must be combined and so attention is required Need to examine one by one X X T X T T

14 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Similarity Theory Similarity between targets and distracters is important, not number of features to be combined –More shared features = more difficult to detect a target –Find the letter R

15 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Guided Search Cave & Wolf (1990) All searches have two phases –Parallel phase –Serial stage

16 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Selectivity of Attention Cocktail party phenomenon –How are we able to follow one conversation in the presence of other conversations?

17 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Cherry’s Shadowing Technique The lawyer defended his client as the trial began. He was able The doctor went to the park to find the homeless man. He was ….. The doctor went to the park….. Listen to two different conversations and repeat one of the messages; may be binaural or dichotic Attended Ear: Unattended Ear:

18 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Cherry’s Results Noticed in unattended ear –Change in gender –Change to a tone Did not notice in unattended ear –Changed language –Changed topic, same speaker –If speech was played backwards

19 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Models of Selective Attention Do they have a filter? Where does the filter occur?

20 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Broadbent’s Model We filter information right after we notice it at the sensory level

21 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Broadbent’s Model Had trouble explaining –Why participant’s name gets through –Why participants can shadow meaningful message that switches from one ear to another –Effects of practice on detecting information in unattended ear (e.g., detect digit in unattended ear for naïve and practiced participants)

22 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Treisman’s Attenuation Model Instead of blocking stimuli out, the filter weakens the strength of stimuli other than the target stimulus

23 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Late Selection Theory (Deutsch & Deutsch, 1963) All stimuli is processed to the level of meaning Relevance determines further processing and action

24 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Neisser’s Synthesis Preattentive processes –Parallel –Note physical characteristics Attentive processes –Controlled processes occur serially –Occur in working memory

25 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Divided Attention How many tasks can you do at once? –e.g., driving and talking, radio, phone...

26 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Dual-Task Paradigm Task 1 may require a verbal response to an auditory stimulus Task 2 may require a participant to push a button in response to a visual stimulus Results indicate that responses to the second task are delayed

27 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Capacity Models of Attention

28 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Real-Life Dual Task Driving and –Cell phones –Adjusting music –Watching the scenery Almost 80% of crashes and 65% of near-crashes involved some form of driver inattention within three seconds of the event

29 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Gauging Your Distraction During Driving http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/ 2009/07/19/technology/20090719- driving-game.htmlhttp://www.nytimes.com/interactive/ 2009/07/19/technology/20090719- driving-game.html

30 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Strayer & Drews (2007) Naturalistic observation of cell phone use and driver behavior Failed to stop Stopped properly On cell phone8228 No cell phone3521286

31 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Strayer & Drews (2007) Results Impact of hands-free cell-phone conversations on simulated driving –Cell-phone conversation led to inattentional blindness –Even if they looked at an object, participant did not remember the object

32 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Factors that Influence Our Ability to Pay Attention Anxiety Arousal Task difficulty Skills

33 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Three Subfunctions of Attention Alerting –Being prepared to attend to some incoming event and maintaining this attention –Involves right frontal and parietal cortexes as well as the locus coeruleus

34 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Three Subfunctions of Attention Orienting –The selection of stimuli to attend to –Needed when we perform a visual search –Involves the superior parietal lobe, the temporal parietal junction, the frontal eye fields, and the superior colliculus

35 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Three Subfunctions of Attention Executive attention –Processes for monitoring and resolving conflicts that arise among internal processes –Involves the anterior cingulate, lateral ventral, and prefrontal cortex as well as the basal ganglia

36 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 When Attention Fails Us ADHD Change blindness and inattentional blindness Spatial neglect

37 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms –Inattention –Hyperactivity –Impulsivity –Not everyone who is overly hyperactive, inattentive, or impulsive has ADHD –Behavior must be demonstrated to a degree that is inappropriate for the person’s age

38 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Change Blindness An inability to detect changes in objects or scenes that are being viewed http://viscog.beckman.uiuc.edu/djs_lab/de mos.html

39 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Inattentional Blindness People are not able to see things that are actually there http://news.yahoo.com/s/livescience/20100713/sc_lives cience/invisiblegorillatestshowshowlittlewenotice

40 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Spatial Neglect Lesion on one side of brain causes person to ignore half of their visual field

41 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Habituation Decrease in responsiveness when exposed to a repeated stimulus –People who smoke do not notice the smell of cigarettes on their clothes, but nonsmokers do –People get used to hearing the chiming of their clocks

42 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Dishabituation Change in familiar stimuli causes one to notice it again –Smokers who quit suddenly notice how much their clothes smell of smoke –If clock breaks, owner suddenly notices the clock isn’t chiming

43 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Habituation/Dishabituation Paradigm Allows psychologists to test abilities of infants and animals Measure subject’s arousal to see if a change occurs when pattern or sound changes –If animal or infant dishabituates to a change, they can detect the change –If the animal or infant does not dishabituate to a change in stimuli, they did not detect the change

44 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Controlled vs. Automatic Processing Automatic processing –Requires no conscious control Controlled processing –Requires conscious control

45 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Is Typing Automatic or Controlled for You? Do you type without thinking where your fingers are? Are you a search-and- peck typer? If you do type without using attention, what happens when you think about the letters as you are typing them?

46 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4

47 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Automatization: Two Explanations Integrated components theory: Anderson –Practice leads to integration; less and less attention is needed Instance theory: Logan –Retrieve from memory specific answers, skipping the procedure; thus less attention is needed

48 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Effect of Practice on Automatization Rate of learning slows as amount of learning increases Negative- acceleration curve

49 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Stroop Effect red yellow green blue red blue yellow green blue red Say the color the words are printed in as quickly as you can What errors do you make? Reading interferes with your ability to state the color, and your reaction time is slower

50 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Preconscious Processing Information that is available for cognitive processing but that currently lies outside conscious awareness –Priming –TOT phenomenon –Blindsight

51 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 BREAD BUTTER How quickly do you process the second word? Faster if you have been primed with a related word Priming NURSE DOCTOR CAT DOG

52 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Marcel (1983) Condition Subliminally Present Prime Consciously Present Prime Prime PALM Mask XXXX Target PINE OR WRIST Response Body part or plant? Reaction time How fast?

53 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Marcel’s Procedure with Participants PALM XXXXPINE It’s a plant.Umm, it’s a plant. Subliminal ConditionConscious Condition

54 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Marcel (1983) Results Condition Subliminally Present Prime Consciously Present Prime Targets: PINE or WRIST Found faster RT for both target words Found faster RT for one of two target words, slower RT for the other target InterpretationBoth meanings were primed Only one meaning is primed, the other inhibited

55 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Priming Can Speed or Slow Processing Facilitative priming –Target stimuli (e.g., BUTTER) are processed faster if preceded by a related word (e.g., BREAD) Negative priming effect –Target stimuli (e.g., PINE) is processed slower if preceded by a word related to target’s alternate meaning (PALM relating to hand)

56 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Bowers, Regehr, Balthazard, & Parker (1990) Triad ATriad B BasketSwan RoomArmy FootMask Which of these triads is coherent? What is the 4 th word that ties them together? BALL

57 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Bowers et al. (1990) Results Even if participants could not generate the 4 th word, they still selected the coherent triad Results demonstrate preconscious processing

58 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Tip-of-the-Tongue Experiences (TOT) You know you know the word, but you cannot fully retrieve the word Paradigms used to generate TOT –Show pictures of famous people or politicians and have participants name them –Ask general knowledge questions to generate TOTs

59 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 TOT Demonstration What is the name of Dagwood Bumstead’s dog? Who wrote Paradise Lost? What is a wheeled hospital cart called? Do any of these questions put the answer on the tip of your tongue?

60 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Blindsight Person cannot consciously see a certain portion of their visual field but still behave in some instances as if they can see it Being aware of doing something is distinguishable from doing something

61 Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Visual Mind Reading Using fMRI to predict what people are paying attention to INSERT VIDEO #23, Visual Mind Reading


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