2 Some Questions of Interest Can we actively process information, even if we are not aware of doing so? If so, what do we do, and how do we do it?What are some of the functions of attention?
3 Some Questions of Interest What are some theories cognitive psychologists have developed to explain attentional processes?What have cognitive psychologists learned about attention by studying the human brain?
4 Attention Is…The means by which we actively process a limited amount of informationINSERT FIG 4.1
5 Main Functions of Attention Signal detection and vigilanceSearchSelective attentionDivided attention
6 Signal Detection Theory (SDT) Measure sensitivity to a target’s presenceSignalPresentAbsentHitFalse AlarmMissCorrect RejectionExplain this theory using an example: Radar detection, shower and phone ringing, fire truck visibility (color as a property of signal detection), driver vigilance and fatigue, detecting cancer through self-examinations. Also discuss how changing sensitivity criterion can influence number of hits or false alarms.Decision
7 Vigilance and SDTVigilance is attending to a set of stimuli over a length of time in order to detect a target signalVigilance decreases rapidly over time (fatigue), thus misses and false alarms increaseUsing examples discuss how vigilance is important to maintain.
8 Search Actively searching for a target Number of targets and distracters influence accuracyFeature search versus conjunctive searchDefine basics of searching. Explain the difference between conjunctive search versus feature search, the following slides will provide a demonstration.Feature search: environment is scanned for one particular feature.Conjunction search: a combination of features is scanned for.
9 Conjunctive Search Find the letter T Which panel is easier? INSERT FIG 4.2
10 Feature Search Find the letter O Easier or harder than the previous one?INSERT FIG 4.3 (a)
11 Feature-Integration Theory (FIT) Individual feature processing is done in parallelSimultaneous processing is done on the whole display and if feature is present, we detect itConjunctive searching requires attention to the integration or combination of the featuresAttention to particular combination of features must be done sequentially to detect presence of a certain combinationExplain parallel processing means all at once. Describe how sequential processing is different.
12 Another Feature Search Is there a red T in the display?TTTTTTTTTarget is defined by asingle featureAccording to featureintegration theory, thetarget should “pop out”No attention requiredTTTTTTTTT
13 Another Conjunction Search Is there a red T in the display?XTXTTarget is defined by twofeatures: shape and colorAccording to FIT, the features must be combined and so attention is requiredNeed to examine one by oneXTTXXTXXTTT
14 Similarity TheorySimilarity between targets and distracters is important, not number of features to be combinedMore shared features = more difficult to detect a targetFind the letter RINSERT FIG 4.5
15 Guided Search Cave & Wolf (1990) All searches have two phases Parallel phaseSerial stage
16 Selectivity of Attention Cocktail party phenomenonHow are we able to follow one conversation in the presence of other conversations?
17 Cherry’s Shadowing Technique Cherry’s Shadowing TechniqueAttended Ear:Unattended Ear:The doctor went to the park to find the homeless man. He wasThe lawyer defended his client as the trial began. He was able…..The doctor went to the park…..Explain difference between Binaural and Dichotic.Listen to two different conversations and repeat one of the messages; may be binaural or dichotic
18 Cherry’s Results Noticed in unattended ear Cherry’s ResultsNoticed in unattended earChange in genderChange to a toneDid not notice in unattended earChanged languageChanged topic, same speakerIf speech was played backwards
19 Models of Selective Attention Models of Selective AttentionDo they have a filter?Where does the filter occur?
20 Broadbent’s ModelWe filter information right after we notice it at the sensory levelINSERT FIG 4.9, top half.Explain how Broadbent’s model explains Cherry’s data.
21 Broadbent’s Model Had trouble explaining Broadbent’s ModelHad trouble explainingWhy participant’s name gets throughWhy participants can shadow meaningful message that switches from one ear to anotherEffects of practice on detecting information in unattended ear (e.g., detect digit in unattended ear for naïve and practiced participants)
22 Treisman’s Attenuation Model Treisman’s Attenuation ModelInstead of blocking stimuli out, the filter weakens the strength of stimuli other than the target stimulusINSERT FIG 4.9, top half.Explain how Treisman can now account for additional findings. Yellow arrow indicates information is being attended and the filter makes this strong, the pumpkin colored arrow is less strong and the orange arrow is made the weakest. The message of the pumpkin colored arrow may still get through due to the lower threshold (closer to the arrow).
23 Late Selection Theory (Deutsch & Deutsch, 1963) Late Selection Theory (Deutsch & Deutsch, 1963)All stimuli is processed to the level of meaningRelevance determines further processing and actionINSERT FIG 4.10Pertinence = task demands and personal importance.
24 Neisser’s Synthesis Preattentive processes Attentive processes ParallelNote physical characteristicsAttentive processesControlled processes occur seriallyOccur in working memory
25 Divided Attention How many tasks can you do at once? e.g., driving and talking, radio, phone...
26 Dual-Task ParadigmTask 1 may require a verbal response to an auditory stimulusTask 2 may require a participant to push a button in response to a visual stimulusResults indicate that responses to the second task are delayed
27 Capacity Models of Attention INSERT FIG 4.11Explain the basic concept of attentional resource theory.Capacity theories: limited amount of resources available to conduct tasks (Kahneman, 1973), or individual pools for each modality (Navon & Gopher, 1979)Attentional resources may involve either a single pool or a multiplicity of modality-specific pools. Although the attentional resources theory has been criticized for its imprecision, it seems to complement filter theories in explaining some aspects of attention.
28 Real-Life Dual Task Driving and Cell phonesAdjusting musicWatching the sceneryAlmost 80% of crashes and 65% of near-crashes involved some form of driver inattention within three seconds of the event
30 Strayer & Drews (2007)Naturalistic observation of cell phone use and driver behaviorFailed to stopStopped properlyOn cell phone8228No cell phone3521286Strayer, D. L. & Drews, F. A. (In Press). Multi-tasking in the automobile. To appear in A. Kramer, D. Wiegmann, & A. Kirlik (Eds.) Applied Attention: From Theory to Practice
31 Strayer & Drews (2007) Results Impact of hands-free cell-phone conversations on simulated drivingCell-phone conversation led to inattentional blindnessEven if they looked at an object, participant did not remember the object
32 Factors that Influence Our Ability to Pay Attention AnxietyArousalTask difficultySkills
33 Three Subfunctions of Attention Three Subfunctions of AttentionAlertingBeing prepared to attend to some incoming event and maintaining this attentionInvolves right frontal and parietal cortexes as well as the locus coeruleus
34 Three Subfunctions of Attention Three Subfunctions of AttentionOrientingThe selection of stimuli to attend toNeeded when we perform a visual searchInvolves the superior parietal lobe, the temporal parietal junction, the frontal eye fields, and the superior colliculus
35 Three Subfunctions of Attention Three Subfunctions of AttentionExecutive attentionProcesses for monitoring and resolving conflicts that arise among internal processesInvolves the anterior cingulate, lateral ventral, and prefrontal cortex as well as the basal ganglia
36 When Attention Fails Us ADHDChange blindness and inattentional blindnessSpatial neglect
37 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)SymptomsInattentionHyperactivityImpulsivityNot everyone who is overly hyperactive, inattentive, or impulsive has ADHDBehavior must be demonstrated to a degree that is inappropriate for the person’s ageNational Institute of Mental HealthCited in text as information on ADHD.
38 Change BlindnessAn inability to detect changes in objects or scenes that are being viewed
39 Inattentional Blindness Inattentional BlindnessPeople are not able to see things that are actually thereSee Simons (2010)
40 Spatial NeglectLesion on one side of brain causes person to ignore half of their visual fieldINSERT FIG 4.14
41 HabituationDecrease in responsiveness when exposed to a repeated stimulusPeople who smoke do not notice the smell of cigarettes on their clothes, but nonsmokers doPeople get used to hearing the chiming of their clocks
42 Change in familiar stimuli causes one to notice it again DishabituationChange in familiar stimuli causes one to notice it againSmokers who quit suddenly notice how much their clothes smell of smokeIf clock breaks, owner suddenly notices the clock isn’t chiming
43 Habituation/Dishabituation Paradigm Allows psychologists to test abilities of infants and animalsMeasure subject’s arousal to see if a change occurs when pattern or sound changesIf animal or infant dishabituates to a change, they can detect the changeIf the animal or infant does not dishabituate to a change in stimuli, they did not detect the changePowerful paradigm allows us to detect abilities of different species and infants since we can measure their arousal to different stimuli to detect whether they notice.
44 Controlled vs. Automatic Processing Requires no conscious controlControlled processingRequires conscious control
45 Is Typing Automatic or Controlled for You? Do you type without thinking where your fingers are? Are you a search-and-peck typer?If you do type without using attention, what happens when you think about the letters as you are typing them?Discuss how skills begin as controlled and may become automatic over time.Discuss how when you are more likely to make an error when you think about an automatic process.Have you ever tried to teach someone how to do something you know very well, but have difficulty breaking it down into steps because you do it so automatically?
47 Automatization: Two Explanations Integrated components theory: AndersonPractice leads to integration; less and less attention is neededInstance theory: LoganRetrieve from memory specific answers, skipping the procedure; thus less attention is needed
48 Effect of Practice on Automatization Negative- acceleration curveINSERT FIG 4.15Explain how the impact of practice leads to a negatively accelerated curve.Figure 4.15: The rate of improvement caused by practice effects shows a pattern of negative acceleration. The negative acceleration curve attributed to practice effects is similar to the curve shown here, indicating that the rate of learning slows down as the amount of learning increases, until eventually learning peaks at a stable level.Rate of learning slows as amount of learning increases
49 Stroop EffectSay the color the words are printed in as quickly as you canWhat errors do you make?Reading interferes with your ability to state the color, and your reaction time is slowerred yellow green blue red blue yellow green blue redJust click the mouse once and the Stroop words will appear at a gradual pace.What errors do you make? Discuss how it is interference.What do you think would happen…If you tried this experiment with a very small child who had not yet learned to read?If you tried this experiment with someone who was just learning to speak English?If you used the same order of ink colors but wrote non-color words?
50 Preconscious Processing Information that is available for cognitive processing but that currently lies outside conscious awarenessPrimingTOT phenomenonBlindsight
51 Priming How quickly do you process the second word? BREADBUTTERHow quickly do you process the second word?Faster if you have been primed with a related wordNURSECATDOCTORDOG
52 Marcel (1983) Condition Subliminally Present Prime Consciously Present PrimePrimePALMMaskXXXXTargetPINE OR WRISTResponseBody part or plant?Reaction timeHow fast?Distinguish between the two groups in Marcel’s study.In the subliminally present prime group the word “palm” was presented so briefly that the participants were not able to process the word at a conscious level.In the conscious present prime Group, participants were aware they had seen the word “palm” before being asked about the question (body part or plant? ) about the target word (“pine”).
53 Marcel’s Procedure with Participants PALMPINEPALMPINEXXXXIt’s a plant.Umm, it’s a plant.After you click the mouse once on this slide a demonstration of Marcel’s experimental conditions will occur.Once this slide runs through its demonstration once, you can use the “page up” button to repeat the experience.Have the students first focus on what the orange participant sees, then hit the “page up” button on the keyboard and have them view what the yellow person would see.This will enable the students to better understand the difference between the two conditions.Subliminal ConditionConscious Condition
54 Marcel (1983) Results Condition Subliminally Present Prime Consciously PresentTargets:PINE or WRISTFound faster RT for both target wordsFound faster RT for one of two target words, slower RT for the other targetInterpretationBoth meanings were primedOnly one meaning is primed, the other inhibitedDiscuss importance of findings for preconscious processing.If the participant was consciously aware of seeing the word “PALM”, only one mental pathway was activated: the other pathway was inhibited.
55 Priming Can Speed or Slow Processing Facilitative primingTarget stimuli (e.g., BUTTER) are processed faster if preceded by a related word (e.g., BREAD)Negative priming effectTarget stimuli (e.g., PINE) is processed slower if preceded by a word related to target’s alternate meaning (PALM relating to hand)
56 Bowers, Regehr, Balthazard, & Parker (1990) Bowers, Regehr, Balthazard, & Parker (1990)Triad ATriad BBasketSwanRoomArmyFootMaskBALLAnswer: Triad A is coherent4th word is ballWhich of these triads is coherent?What is the 4th word that ties them together?
57 Bowers et al. (1990) ResultsEven if participants could not generate the 4th word, they still selected the coherent triadResults demonstrate preconscious processing
58 Tip-of-the-Tongue Experiences (TOT) Tip-of-the-Tongue Experiences (TOT)You know you know the word, but you cannot fully retrieve the wordParadigms used to generate TOTShow pictures of famous people or politicians and have participants name themAsk general knowledge questions to generate TOTs
59 TOT Demonstration What is the name of Dagwood Bumstead’s dog? Who wrote Paradise Lost?What is a wheeled hospital cart called?Do any of these questions put the answer on the tip of your tongue?Answers: Daisy, Milton, GurneyIn experiments using these types of materials, people who are put in the tip-of-the tongue states can often recall the first letter of the answer even though they cannot retrieve the entire word. They can also tell how many syllables are present and a “sound” of the word.
60 BlindsightPerson cannot consciously see a certain portion of their visual field but still behave in some instances as if they can see itBeing aware of doing something is distinguishable from doing something
61 INSERT VIDEO #23, Visual Mind Reading Using fMRI to predict what people are paying attention toINSERT VIDEO #23, Visual Mind ReadingINSERT VIDEO #23, Visual Mind Reading