Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

 Rose Mince, Linda De La Ysla, Mel Berry, Nancy Parker, and Michael Venn Innovations Conference 2012 Philadelphia, PA The Community College of Baltimore.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: " Rose Mince, Linda De La Ysla, Mel Berry, Nancy Parker, and Michael Venn Innovations Conference 2012 Philadelphia, PA The Community College of Baltimore."— Presentation transcript:

1  Rose Mince, Linda De La Ysla, Mel Berry, Nancy Parker, and Michael Venn Innovations Conference 2012 Philadelphia, PA The Community College of Baltimore County

2  Welcome and Introductions  Opening Activity  Overview  Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines  Sharing Best Practices  References  Questions and Answers

3 FIRST QUESTION: YOU ARE A PARTICIPANT IN A RACE. YOU OVERTAKE THE SECOND PERSON. WHAT POSITION ARE YOU IN?

4 ANSWER : IF YOU ANSWERED THAT YOU ARE FIRST, THEN YOU ARE ABSOLUTELY WRONG! IF YOU OVERTAKE THE SECOND PERSON AND YOU TAKE HIS PLACE, YOU ARE IN SECOND PLACE! TRY TO DO BETTER NEXT TIME. NOW ANSWER THE SECOND QUESTION, BUT DON'T TAKE AS MUCH TIME AS YOU TOOK FOR THE FIRST QUESTION, OK?

5 SECOND QUESTION: IF YOU OVERTAKE THE LAST PERSON, THEN YOU ARE…?

6 ANSWER: IF YOU ANSWERED THAT YOU ARE SECOND TO LAST, THEN YOU ARE..... WRONG AGAIN. TELL ME SUNSHINE, HOW CAN YOU OVERTAKE THE LAST PERSON?? YOU'RE NOT VERY GOOD AT THIS, ARE YOU?

7 THIRD QUESTION: VERY TRICKY ARITHMETIC! NOTE: THIS MUST BE DONE IN YOUR HEAD ONLY. DO NOT USE PAPER AND PENCIL OR A CALCULATOR. TRY IT. TAKE 1000 AND ADD 40 TO IT... NOW ADD ANOTHER NOW ADD 30. ADD ANOTHER NOW ADD 20.NOW ADD ANOTHER NOW ADD 10. WHAT IS THE TOTAL?

8 DID YOU GET 5,000? THE CORRECT ANSWER IS ACTUALLY 4, IF YOU DON'T BELIEVE IT, CHECK IT WITH A CALCULATOR! - WE’LL WAIT!!!! TODAY IS DEFINITELY NOT YOUR DAY, IS IT? MAYBE YOU'LL GET THE LAST QUESTION RIGHT... MAYBE...

9 FOURTH QUESTION: MARY'S FATHER HAS FIVE DAUGHTERS: 1. NANA, 2. NENE, 3. NINI, 4. NONO, AND ??? WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE FIFTH DAUGHTER ?

10 DID YOU ANSWER NUNU? NO! OF COURSE IT ISN'T. HER NAME IS MARY! READ THE QUESTION AGAIN!

11 OKAY, NOW THE BONUS ROUND, YOUR FINAL CHANCE TO REDEEM YOURSELF… A MUTE PERSON GOES INTO A SHOP AND WANTS TO BUY A TOOTHBRUSH. BY IMITATING THE ACTION OF BRUSHING HIS TEETH, HE SUCCESSFULLY EXPRESSES HIMSELF TO THE SHOPKEEPER AND THE PURCHASE IS DONE. NEXT, A BLIND MAN COMES INTO THE SHOP WHO WANTS TO BUY A PAIR OF SUNGLASSES. HOW DOES HE INDICATE WHAT HE WANTS?

12 IT'S REALLY VERY SIMPLE HE OPENS HIS MOUTH AND ASKS FOR IT! DOES YOUR EMPLOYER ACTUALLY PAY YOU TO THINK?? IF SO, DO NOT LET HIM/HER SEE YOUR ANSWERS FOR THIS TEST! You see, critical thinking is not as easy at it looks, right?

13  Critical Thinking is:  Teachers and writers are often referring to very different things when they use the term thinking—partly because of the complexity of the concept and partly because people use it to describe their favorite kind of learning, whatever that is. (Fink)  Critical thinking can be defined as the process of analyzing and evaluating something (criteria play an especially important role). (Fink)  Use question words such as: compare, evaluate, in what ways were, how did, how is (the mathematical proof flawed), compare and contrast….

14  Theory and Practice: o The goal is for students to take ownership of their learning. o To learn a subject well, students must master the thinking that defines that subject, and instructors must design activities and assignments that require students to think actively within the concepts and principles of the subject. Students should master fundamental concepts and principles before they attempt to learn more advanced concepts. (Paul & Elder) o The most intensive and demanding tool for eliciting sustained critical thought is a well-designed writing assignment on a subject matter problem. Writing is closely linked with thinking. In presenting students with significant problems to write about—and in creating an environment that demands their best writing—we can promote their general cognitive and intellectual growth. (Bean)

15 o “Professors who successfully integrate writing and critical thinking tasks into their courses often report a satisfying increase in their teaching pleasure: class discussions are richer, students are more fully engaged in their learning, and the quality of their performance improves. o This does not happen through serendipity—teachers must plan for it and foster it throughout the course. (Bean) o Get students engaged with a problem to solve. Problems evoke students’ natural curiosity and stimulate learning and critical thought. Students must seek their own solutions. o Critical thinkers are actively engaged with life. (Brookfield)

16   Assesses four core skill areas — critical thinking, reading, writing and mathematics — in a single, convenient test that the Voluntary System of Accountability (VSA) has selected as a gauge of general education outcomes.Voluntary System of Accountability (VSA)  Informs teaching and learning with actionable score reports we can use to pinpoint strengths and areas of improvement  Provides comparative data on more than 400 institutions and over 500,000 students nationwide

17 Reading/Critical Thinking To be considered Proficient: At level 1, a student should be able to:  Recognize factual material explicitly presented in a reading passage  Understand the meaning of particular words or phrases in the context of a reading passage.

18  Synthesize material from different sections of a passage  Recognize valid inferences derived from material in the passage  Identify accurate summaries of a passage or of signification sections of the passage  Understand and interpret figurative language  Discern the main idea, purpose or focus of a passage or a significant portion of a passage

19  Evaluate competing casual explanations  Evaluate hypothesis for consistency with known facts  Determine the relevance of information for evaluating an argument or conclusion  Determine whether an artistic interpretation is supported by evidence contained in the work  Recognize the salient features or themes in a work of art  Evaluate the appropriateness of procedures for investigating a question of causation  Evaluate data for consistency with known facts, hypotheses or methods  Recognize flaws and inconsistencies in argument

20  English

21  In the writing classroom, critical thinking is enhanced through o problem-driven writing assignments that start out with A question A doubt A puzzling over An uncertainty

22 o You will write a research (I-Search) paper of 1,500-1,750 words based on issues related to the history of your family or ethnic/religious group: e.g., immigration, cultural adaptation, issues of socioeconomics, human rights, etc. … Research must utilize five (5) credible sources; two (2) sources should be primary and three (3) sources should be secondary …The paper will be due in stages, with point values assigned …

23 1. Perception of a problem 2. Exploration 3. Incubation 4. Writing the first draft 5. Response and re-vision 6. Editing 7. Publication 8. Metacognitive reflection

24  Construction of family tree  Letter to ancestor  First interview of family member or other “expert”  “Topic chooses you” and writing of a rationale (why it matters to know more about x or y)

25  Who are the family members or ancestors about whom you have always been curious?  If you could, what questions would you ask them?

26  Writer … o meets with me for an I-Search paper conference o discusses interview experience and “problems” with group members and with me o may revise initial topic for exploration

27  First draft-in-progress shared in writing group  I comment on draft and meet with students  Students think things through

28  Students revise through more research: o Two hands-on instructional sessions with reference librarian o Continue interviewing to gather missing data o May turn in another draft to me

29  Students edit and format, helping each other and asking me  All students do a reading at end of semester, sharing what they learned  “Final” draft turned in: “Is the jury still out?”

30  At end of semester, students write a Final Analytic Essay for their portfolios, in which they describe the experience of writing the Family History I-Search Paper

31  “…for the I-search paper, I began the writing process by asking myself what I wanted to know most about my family … and then … I had the idea of asking my parents about the (El Salvadorian) dictatorship … I agree with my professor and I believe that all writing begins with some thinking.” – Leticia  “At first I was nervous … this particular assignment was big and would consist of a lot of hard work … I did my project on my grandfather, a Seabee veteran … The question of “am I enjoying this because it’s on my family?” or “has my professor pushed me to the pace of college?” was a mystery in my head.” – Ian

32  “I feel as though I have a different perspective on my life, and I feel bookended by other men and women’s experiences … I would encourage anyone, whether for an assignment … or simply as a means of better understanding themselves and their families, to take the time to mine these stories before the storytellers are no longer alive. As George Bernard Shaw said, every single person has a family skeleton, or a good story, but it is up to us to do the shaking.” - Michael

33  The assignment discourages plagiarism;  I enjoy reading the papers; no two are the same!  Students begin conversations with family members that they never had before, changing (improving) the relationship; and  Students begin to understand that “his-tory” is both “his” and “her”- story.

34  English

35 Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness. Critical Thinking as Defined by the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking, 1987 A statement by Michael Scriven & Richard Paul for the {presented at the 8th Annual International Conference on Critical Thinking and Education Reform, Summer 1987}.

36  Six Essential Elements of Critical Thinking These elements of critical thinking often implied but unacknowledged, but they are no less important.  Rationality It emphasizes reason over emotion It requires evidence, ignores no evidence, and follows evidence where it leads. It is concerned with “truth” (best explanation) more than being “right.”  Self-awareness It weighs the influence of our motives, biases, and recognizes that we have subjectively formed points of view that can influence our perspectives.  Honesty It recognizing that we and others have emotional impulses, selfish motives, and sometimes even nefarious purposes that may affect our perception of material.

37  Six Essential Elements of Critical Thinking  Open-mindedness It evaluate all possible inferences and is willing to consider alternate points of view, perspectives, and interpretations—essentially it means being a “learner” and “searcher.” Also, it is having an attitude that doesn’t reject unpopular positions simply because they are in the minority.  Discipline It is being meticulous, comprehensive, and exhaustive; avoiding “snap judgments,” or manipulation and irrational appeals.  Judgment It is recognizing the merit and relevance of alternative assumptions and perspectives and the weight and extent of the evidence for any and all perspectives.

38  Is inspiring critical thinking hard work?  Hooking Students – It’s important to meet students on their “ground” and to be familiar with issues that are important to them. Why? Because when you use their songs, their movies, or their books, they are automatically “interested” and that’s the first step in critical thinking—that they know the material—or are at least willing to delve into it.

39  Using films to illustrate the concepts of critical thinking…  12 Angry Men – 1997 Version The film is about a boy on trial for murdering his father and the whole thing takes place in the jury room where the jurors must hammer out their verdict. The characters themselves must engage in critical thinking and thus their actions often illustrate the following:  The three Appeals: Logos (factual), Pathos (emotional) Ethos (ethical / credibility).  Logical Fallacies: So many to choose from – “bandwagon,” “slippery slope,” “post-hoc,” etc.  The Stages of Critical Thinking: Observation, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation

40  The Stages of Critical Thinking: ( Observation), Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation  What are the Three Appeals?  Logos = The factual appeal, stressing information that can be verified and corroborated and thus have a high degree of reliability  Pathos = The emotional appeal, playing upon someone’s emotions: positive emotions – love, sense of belonging or negative emotions: fear or revulsion, etc.  Ethos = The ethical appeal, appealing to one’s credibility as a source, e.g. one’s high ethical resolve or standards are the guarantor for the issue.  What are Logical Fallacies?  A logical fallacy is simply, “a misconception resulting from incorrect reasoning”, and there are many ways to reason incorrectly, right? “Stereotyping “ (Hasty Generalization) is a logical fallacy because its user is reasoning from the group to the individual. Another common fallacy is the “Post Hoc “(after this because of this) fallacy. It is a fallacy because the user supposes that since one thing has happened after another the thing, the prior thing caused the second thing to happen. A third fallacy is “Bandwagon” and it is what it sounds like, reasoning that says that if a group is or is not doing something then that something must be right!

41 A scene in 12 Angry Men that illustrates the appeals and logical fallacies. See if you can pick out a logical fallacy or the appeal that juror ten makes.

42 Questions: 1.What is the first clue that Juror #10 is not a “critical thinker”? “All these picky points don’t mean anything…” In other words breaking down evidence, looking for contradictions and consistencies, don’t matter that they cannot help us come to an understanding of the truth. 2. Did you detect any (many?) logical fallacies? There are plenty!  Hasty Generalizations – stereotyping “They’re born liars,… life doesn’t mean as much to them as it does to us,” etc. Instead of dealing with the boy, Juror #10 lumps the boy in with a group and rails against the group but ignores the individual.  Ad Hominem – attacking the person rather dealing with the argument Juror #10 attacks his fellow jurors when they disagree with him—calling them names and making other derogatory comments, “clean your ears out…” etc. 3. Did you notice the kind of appeal Juror #10 was making?  The Pathos Appeal – He appealed to those he “thought” he’d get some sympathy from—his fellow African-Americans and he tried to get them to “fear” this boy and what he represents. “They’re going to breed us out of existence! Let’s get his kind before they get us!”

43  Reading

44 Developmental Reading: Being able to interpret, analyze, evaluate, and infer. Good critical thinkers can do two more things. They can explain what they think and how they arrived at that judgment. And, they can apply their powers of critical thinking to themselves and improve on their previous opinions (self-regulation)…” (Peter Facione, 1998)

45 In Developmental Reading, students practice and apply critical thinking skills in all aspects of the course:  Skill Reviews  Novel Activities  Article Evaluations  Political Cartoon Analyses  Website Critiques, and many more!

46 Skill Review  In Developmental Reading, our students are in need of a refresher on the basic college reading skills.  This review does not have to consist of “skill and drill” activities. With proper scaffolding techniques, I am able to push my students beyond basic skills work and help them to think critically about the content we cover.  Example: (See hand-outs) o “Leave Your Name at the Border” /“Home at Last” Tone Activities

47 Novel Activities The Other Wes Moore by Wes Moore Students are assigned a section of the novel to be read before the next class. I utilize the discussion board on Blackboard or a very short “Chapter Check” quiz at the start of class to ensure that the students have completed the reading. This allows more time for the students to work on higher – level, critical thinking questions during class. Students meet with their “Novel Networks” in order to discuss a critical thinking question about the reading. I can then have students report out to the whole class about their discussion/findings or utilize the discussion to help them answer a journal/written response question independently. Example: See sample questions on The Other Wes Moore hand-out.

48 Article Evaluations I try to expose my students to a wide variety of articles throughout the semester. We read articles from various disciplines, news outlets, etc… We then work as a group to complete an “Elements of Thought” organizer. This is based on Dr. Richard Paul and Dr. Linda Elder’s work: “The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools.” The students may utilize the Resource Sheet as a reference for future articles. We revisit this organizer periodically. The organizer can be used with whole group, partner, and independent tasks. I can also tailor the assignment in order to focus on certain “elements of thought” depending on the students’ needs. Example: See hand-outs for “Elements of Thought”

49 Political Cartoon Analyses I have found that political cartoons are a “less intimidating” method for teaching critical thinking skills. Students are more motivated to jump in and share their thoughts on what they see. After briefly discussing the make-up of political cartoons, we analyze several as a group. These “think-alouds” provide a model for students to follow when they work on their own. Students then have the opportunity to work in groups/partners to analyze cartoons and to then share with the class. You could even assign homework in which students are asked to find and analyze cartoons on their own. Let’s try one!

50

51  Mathematics

52 How many different four-letter radio station call letters can be formed if the first letter must be a W or K?  Hint: You can use any resource available to you to solve this problem.

53 2 x 26 x 26x 26 = 35,152 What resources did you use?

54  For mathematical settings, critical thinking is knowing: what to do when to do it how to do it and why to do it

55 Individual Integrated Resource Review What is it?  A graded problem set similar to the upcoming test Distributed to the class before the test Due the day of the test

56 1. Students may use any resources but me* to solve the review problems: classmates, books, notes, etc. 2. Students may stay in the classroom or go; they may work alone or in groups. 3. Students must disclose any people they worked with on the review, both members and non- members of the class. * I will not help students specifically with any problems in the problem set, but I stay during the review session to help individuals with concepts or to go over a homework problem similar to the those on the problem set.

57 1. Individual Integrated Resource Review technique used in Ideas in Mathematics, a liberal arts mathematics course, and Intro to Statistics. 2. Useful for mathematics courses that cover material with detailed, multistep, and complexly worded problems. 3. Fosters critical thinking by encouraging students to articulate the steps, employ the tricks, and understand the theory behind the mathematics in preparation for the test. what to do when to do it how to do it and why to do it

58 Mean Score BeforeMean Score AfterP-Value Final Exam75.89%82.51%0.178 Exam %82.27%<0.001 Exam %72.86%0.092 Exam %73.73%0.427

59 Barkley, E. (2010). Student engagement techniques: A handbook for college faculty. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Bean, John C. (2001). Engaging ideas: The Professor’s Guide to integrating writing, critical thinking, and active learning in the classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Brookfield, S. (1995). Becoming a critically reflective teacher. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Chickering, A. & Gamson, Z. (1987). Seven principles of good practice in undergraduate education. American Association for Higher Education Bulletin.

60  Dixon, D. (1983) Writing your heritage: A sequence of thinking, reading, and writing. Berkeley, CA: National Writing Project.  Fink, L.D. (2003). Creating significant learning experiences. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.  Kuh, G. (2009). The national survey of student engagement: Conceptual and empirical foundations. New Directions in Institutional Research, 2009 (141),  Macrorie, K. (1988) The I-Search paper: Revised edition of searching writing. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton-Cook.  Paul, R. & Elder, L. (2011). How to improve student learning: 30 practical ideas. Tomales, CA: The Foundation for Critical Thinking Press.

61  Share one strategy, activity, or idea that you have about critical thinking that you think would be useful to the other participants in the session.

62 Barkley, E. (2010). Student engagement techniques: A handbook for college faculty. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Bean, John C. (2001). Engaging ideas: The Professor’s Guide to integrating writing, critical thinking, and active learning in the classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Brookfield, S. (1995). Becoming a critically reflective teacher. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Chickering, A. & Gamson, Z. (1987). Seven principles of good practice in undergraduate education. American Association for Higher Education Bulletin.

63  Fink, L.D. (2003). Creating significant learning experiences. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.  Kuh, G. (2009). The national survey of student engagement: Conceptual and empirical foundations. New Directions in Institutional Research, 2009 (141),  Moore, Wes. (2011). The Other Wes Moore. New York: Spiegel & Grau.  Paul, R. & Elder, L. (2011). How to improve student learning: 30 practical ideas. Tomales, CA: The Foundation for Critical Thinking Press.

64  Paul, R. & Elder, L. (2008). The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools. Tomales, CA: The Foundation for Critical Thinking Press.

65  

66  Contact Information:  Rose Mince, Dean of Instruction for Curriculum and Assessment,  Linda De La Ysla, Assistant Professor, Department of English,  Mel Berry, Assistant Professor, Department of English,  Nancy Parker, Instructor, Department of Reading,  Michael Venn, Instructor, Department of Mathematics,


Download ppt " Rose Mince, Linda De La Ysla, Mel Berry, Nancy Parker, and Michael Venn Innovations Conference 2012 Philadelphia, PA The Community College of Baltimore."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google