Presentation on theme: "BUSINESS TRUSTS Chapter 17: Companies and Other Business Structures."— Presentation transcript:
BUSINESS TRUSTS Chapter 17: Companies and Other Business Structures
MEANING AND USES Four characteristics: – Created by founder, donor or settlor – Assets under control of another (trustee) – During the founders lifetime = inter vivos, on the founders death = mortis causa – Purpose is to benefit third persons (beneficiaries)
Land and Agricultural Bank of SA v Parker Protect the weak Safeguard the interests of the founder Fiduciary responsibility Rights and duties – trust deed
Trust Property Control Act 1988 Administration Only 27 sections Non comprehensive act Def: an arrangement, through which the ownership in property of one person is by virtue of a trust instrument made over or bequeathed: – To another person, the trustee, to be administered or disposed of according to the provisions of the trust instrument for the benefit of the beneficiary or beneficiaries as designated in the trust instrument, or for the achievement of the object stated in the trust instrument; or – To the beneficiaries designated in the trust instrument, which property is placed under the control of another person, the trustee, to be administered or disposed of according to the provisions of the trust instrument for the benefit of the beneficiary or beneficiaries as designated in the trust instrument, or for the achievement of the object stated in the trust instrument.
Ordinary Trust: – Ownership and control of trust assets = trustees – For estate planning, asset protection, business. Bewind: – Assets = beneficiaries – Control = trustees S12: trust property not part of trustee’s personal estate except when beneficiary
COMPANIES ACT 2008 Trust = ‘person’ ‘juristic person’ Income Tax Act, Value Added Tax Act All the shares in a private company kept in trust – company exempt from audit or independent review S 40(5): shares held in trust untill services delivered.
BUSINESS TRUST Ordinary trust Trustees carrying on a business Power to expose assets to risks Not a breach of fiduciary duty Land and Agricultural Bank of SA v Parker
BUSINESS TRUST Beneficiaries may sell, cede and otherwise deal with their interests. Similarities with company and CC. Certificate of interest. Beneficiaries = limited liability. Trustees = personally liable.
BUSINESS TRUST Advantages: Limited liability Less expensive Disadvantages: May be seen as a partnership Beneficiaries seen as owners = third party treat trust as bewind trust of partnership. Trust may be sequestrated.
PARTIES FOUNDER: psn (e) Who establish the trust. TRUSTEES: at least 1. Responsible for administrating trust property. Act within the law and trust deed. BENEFICIARIES: at least 1. psn (e) who benefit in terms of the trust deed.
TRUST DEED Product of document not creature of statute. Contract or testament Land and Agricultural Bank of SA v Parker – “constitutive charter”
TYPES Founder dead or alive? Powers of trustees and rights of beneficiaries? Other criteria? 1. Trust inter vivos v testamentary trusts 2. Family trusts v business trusts 3. Other – statutory trusts, court-order, charitable, international trusts.
LEGAL NATURE Written Crookes v Watson: contract. Requirements of a contract. Testamentary trust = separate legal entity. Requirements of the Wills Act.
CONSEQUENSES Trustees – obligations and powers. Trust Property Control Act, Common Law, trust deed. Beneficiaries – rights. Protection of rights in Act. Vested rights / Discretionary rights.
FORMATION Intention of the founder – obligation on trustees – manage and control assets – for benefit of beneficiary. Lawfull & certain purpose. Trust property certain. Beneficiaries ascertained or ascertainable. Trustee appointed.
AUTHORISATION S6(1): Authorisation by Master. Trustee of trust to be formed? Pre-incorporation contracts in Companies Act Independent.
DUTIES Statutory and common law duties. – Act with reasonable care, diligence and skill – Open a separate trust account at a banking institution – Give effect to the terms of the trust deed – Act with the utmost good faith – Avoid exposing the assets of the trust to undue risk – Account to the beneficiaries. – Keep doc’s for 5 years
POWERS Source = trust deed. Intention of the founder. Business trust – extensive powers.
RIGHTS Must be at least 1 beneficiary. Identified or identifiable. Trust founder and trustee. May dispose of or cede rights.
Test 2!!! 40 marks Close Corporations (36) and Trusts (4) 18 marks court cases Leave out the following case law: – Die Dros (Pty) Ltd v Telefon Beverages SA 207 C – Schwartz v Pike SA 431 SCA – Gatenby v Gatenby SA 118 E – Airport Cold Storage Ltd v Ebrahim SA 303 C – All the cases on Trusts