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Chapter 23: Music in America: Jazz and Beyond

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1 Chapter 23: Music in America: Jazz and Beyond
Later Jazz

2 Key Terms Bebop Jazz-rock Fusion

3 Later Jazz The popularity of big bands collapsed suddenly after World War II They became too expensive to run Entertainment styles changed – rhythm and blues & rock’n’roll were on the rise Jazz styles changed as well Revolutionary new jazz style appeared during the war – bebop

4 Bebop (1) Early 1940s a discouraging time for young black jazz musicians White players got most big band jobs Little improv possible when they did get work Commercial bands seemed to have sucked the life-blood out of jazz These musicians gathered after-hours Hammered out a new style in jam sessions at clubs in Harlem This style would later be called bebop

5 Bebop (2) Bebop emphasized solo improvisation
Small combos typical – more opportunities for improvisation Often just a trumpet & saxophone with rhythm section – piano, bass, drums Bebop demanded technical virtuosity Everything was super-fast – tempo, rhythms, chord changes, sharp snap rhythms, etc. Used complex harmonies in “far out” manner Difficult, fantastical, wide-ranging melodies

6 Charlie Parker (1920-1955) Bebop’s greatest genius
Alto saxophonist; nicknamed “Bird” Bird & Dizzy Gillespie helped create bebop He became a legend in his lifetime But he could not overcome his demons On drugs from the age of 15, suicide attempt, six months in a California mental institution, uncontrollable eating & drinking in later years Died at the age of 34

7 Parker, Out of Nowhere (1)
A popular song in 32-bar A A’ form Recorded live in a New York club in 1948 Starts with “straight” version of tune

8 Parker, Out of Nowhere (2)
Solo choruses feature trumpet, sax, piano Miles’ solo has typical bright bop sound, rapid passage work, & piercing high notes Parker’s sax solo develops the tune’s opening motive with increasingly elaborate, irregular phrases & a bit of an Irish jig Last chorus is like the first, with brief coda

9 Jazz after Bebop With bebop, the avant-garde came to jazz
Emancipation of melody, harmony, tonality Many new jazz styles followed Cool jazz, free jazz, modal jazz, Afro-Cuban jazz, electric jazz, avant-garde jazz, etc. The leaders were as diverse as the styles Thelonious Monk, Miles Davis, Sun Ra, John Coltrane, Ornette Coleman They were the first to improvise freely – with no song, blues, or chord changes as a basis

10 Miles Davis (1926-1991) One of the greatest jazz innovators
As improviser, composer, & bandleader Started out playing bop with Charlie Parker Pioneered cool jazz with Gil Evans – Birth of the Cool ( ) Pioneered modal jazz with John Coltrane – Kind of Blue (1959) Moved toward free jazz with Wayne Shorter & Herbie Hancock – Sorcerer, Nefertiti (1967) Pioneered jazz-rock (fusion) with Joe Zawinul & John McLaughlin – Bitches Brew (1969)

11 Fusion Jazz’s popularity faded in the 1960s
Rock’s popularity soared, especially with youth Miles & others sought to bring rock’s energy & directness into jazz Jazz-rock, or fusion, emerged Combined elements of rock & jazz Turned to rock instruments – electric guitar, electric bass, electric piano, synthesizer Straight-ahead rock beat replaced swing feel

12 Davis, Bitches Brew Miles’ most successful fusion album
Sold hundreds of thousands of copies to both rock & jazz listeners Miles used a larger ensemble than usual Trumpet, soprano sax, bass clarinet Huge rhythm section – electric guitar, electric bass, acoustic bass, 2 auxiliary percussion, and up to 3 keyboards & 2 drummers Used Echoplex to alter trumpet’s sound Used rock rhythms & Motown bass licks

13 Bitches Brew (part) 4 minute excerpt from 27 minute title track
Music ebbs & flows over rocklike electric bass ostinato & drum riffs Builds from meditative, melancholy mood to wild, free climax & sinks back down Extended solo for Miles Uses ever more elaborate patterns, then snaps, a free high-register ostinato, & trumpet squeals Supported by constantly changing figures from electric guitar, electric piano, & percussion Polyrhythms similar to Yoruba drumming

14 Bebop Overview c. 1944-50 – influenced many later styles
Favored small combos – trumpet, sax Rhythm section – piano, bass, drums Emphasized virtuoso solo improvisation Complex melodies, chord, & rhythms , often played at breakneck speed Afro-Cuban rhythms & instruments used Humor – scatting, quotation, surprise accents Based on popular songs (32-bar aaba) Parker & Davis, Out of Nowhere

15 Cool Overview c. 1949-55 – Bebop’s opposite
“Cool” – understated & thoughtful Classical influence, especially impressionism Pastel colors & light, straight (no vibrato) tone Orchestral conception – added flute, oboe, French horn, oboe, vibraphone, etc. Focus on arrangement, less improvisation Sophisticated, flexible treatment of phrases & form – based on advanced harmonies Bernstein, West Side Story, “Cool”

16 Jazz after Bebop Overview
Many new styles explored after 1950 Hard bop, modal jazz, free jazz, fusion New techniques for simultaneous improv New structures (or none at all) substitute for pre-existing songs or chord changes Electronic instruments added; expanded percussion & winds Influence of popular styles, especially rock & funk Miles Davis, Bitches Brew

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