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Bop Chapter 8. © 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 2 A Shift to Bop a.k.a. bebop Big bands were replaced by combos New, younger players replaced those.

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Presentation on theme: "Bop Chapter 8. © 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 2 A Shift to Bop a.k.a. bebop Big bands were replaced by combos New, younger players replaced those."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bop Chapter 8

2 © 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 2 A Shift to Bop a.k.a. bebop Big bands were replaced by combos New, younger players replaced those gone in the military Complexities of bop offered musicians a way to escape the commercialism of swing Offered a voice for the growing defiance in the African American culture

3 © 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 3 Bop’s changes Not intended for dancing A new repertoire A new rhythmic and harmonic complexity Quintet was favored setting More expertise required of musicians Refer to demonstration 6

4 © 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 4 Bop’s changes - continued - Most radical shift in the history of jazz Beginnings of a codified canon Jazz became a more completely concert form Set a framework for the developing jazz mainstream Emergence of the patriarchs of modern jazz

5 © 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 5 Bop arranging Complex melodies were usually played in unison One chorus of melody followed by solos and return to unison melody

6 © 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 6 Musical expansion Extended harmonies Complex harmonies –Added and substitute chords Faster tempos –More complex rhythms Tonal clashes (dissonance) New melodies to standard changes Listen to “Shaw Nuff” CD 3, track 2

7 © 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 7 Bop Rhythm Section Drums –bass and snare drums used mainly for accents –Random hits called “bombs” Piano –Changed to a chordal punctuation (comping) as pioneered by Basie –Solos in the bop melodic style Bass –More interesting non-repetitive walking lines

8 © 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 8 The performers The most important innovators were: Dizzy Gillespie, trumpet Charlie Parker, alto saxophone Thelonious Monk, Bud Powel, piano Kenny Clarke, Max Roach, drums J.J. Johnson, trombone

9 © 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 9 Dizzy Gillespie ( ) Inspired by Roy Eldridge Fiery high note style Virtuoso technique Composed numerous jazz standards –ex. “A Night in Tunisia” Played opposite Charlie Parker Exuberant, humorous stage presence

10 © 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 10 Charlie “Yardbird” Parker Enormously influential Grew up in Kansas City listening to Basie Came to New York in 1942 with Jay McShan Dazzling technique Interpreted every style and tempo well

11 © 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 11 Charlie Parker - continued - Wrote many important jazz standards –“Billie’s Bounce”, “Ornithology”, “Confirmation” Self destructive personality cut his career short Lasting legacy as the father of modern saxophone playing Listen to “KoKo” CD 1, track 23

12 © 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 12 Thelonious Monk Talent and importance not readily recognized Played piano with Parker and Gillespie First recordings in 1947 Lost his cabaret card and thereby the ability to play in New York clubs in the 50s Wrote important and original tunes that remain part of the jazz canon Listen to “Bags Groove” CD 1, track 24

13 © 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 13 Bop and big bands When big bands added bop stylings, they were labeled as “progressive” Billy Eckstine band: –Featured many up and coming bop players in New York, and singer Sarah Vaughn –Eckstine also an excellent singer –Lack of recordings due to record bans of the mid-40s

14 © 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 14 Bop and big bands - continued - Stan Kenton –West coast pianist and composer –Accepted the progressive label Great innovator in jazz education Never compromised art for the sake of commercialism

15 © 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 15 Cubop The addition of percussionists to progressive big bands in the late 40s gave variety and freshness to their sound Dizzy Gillespie was the first with the addition of Chano Pozo Musical collaborations also occurred –Gillespie with Mario Bauza –Kenton with Machito

16 © 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 16 Tito Puente Puente’s band combined more sophisticated harmonies with complex rhythms to further a Latin dance style called mambo Played originals, Latin hits, and jazz standards played in a Latin style Listen to “Donna Lee” CD 3, track 11


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