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Bop Chapter 8
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 2 A Shift to Bop a.k.a. bebop Big bands were replaced by combos New, younger players replaced those gone in the military Complexities of bop offered musicians a way to escape the commercialism of swing Offered a voice for the growing defiance in the African American culture
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 3 Bop’s changes Not intended for dancing A new repertoire A new rhythmic and harmonic complexity Quintet was favored setting More expertise required of musicians Refer to demonstration 6
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 4 Bop’s changes - continued - Most radical shift in the history of jazz Beginnings of a codified canon Jazz became a more completely concert form Set a framework for the developing jazz mainstream Emergence of the patriarchs of modern jazz
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 5 Bop arranging Complex melodies were usually played in unison One chorus of melody followed by solos and return to unison melody
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 6 Musical expansion Extended harmonies Complex harmonies –Added and substitute chords Faster tempos –More complex rhythms Tonal clashes (dissonance) New melodies to standard changes Listen to “Shaw Nuff” CD 3, track 2
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 7 Bop Rhythm Section Drums –bass and snare drums used mainly for accents –Random hits called “bombs” Piano –Changed to a chordal punctuation (comping) as pioneered by Basie –Solos in the bop melodic style Bass –More interesting non-repetitive walking lines
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 8 The performers The most important innovators were: Dizzy Gillespie, trumpet Charlie Parker, alto saxophone Thelonious Monk, Bud Powel, piano Kenny Clarke, Max Roach, drums J.J. Johnson, trombone
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 9 Dizzy Gillespie ( ) Inspired by Roy Eldridge Fiery high note style Virtuoso technique Composed numerous jazz standards –ex. “A Night in Tunisia” Played opposite Charlie Parker Exuberant, humorous stage presence
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 10 Charlie “Yardbird” Parker Enormously influential Grew up in Kansas City listening to Basie Came to New York in 1942 with Jay McShan Dazzling technique Interpreted every style and tempo well
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 11 Charlie Parker - continued - Wrote many important jazz standards –“Billie’s Bounce”, “Ornithology”, “Confirmation” Self destructive personality cut his career short Lasting legacy as the father of modern saxophone playing Listen to “KoKo” CD 1, track 23
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 12 Thelonious Monk Talent and importance not readily recognized Played piano with Parker and Gillespie First recordings in 1947 Lost his cabaret card and thereby the ability to play in New York clubs in the 50s Wrote important and original tunes that remain part of the jazz canon Listen to “Bags Groove” CD 1, track 24
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 13 Bop and big bands When big bands added bop stylings, they were labeled as “progressive” Billy Eckstine band: –Featured many up and coming bop players in New York, and singer Sarah Vaughn –Eckstine also an excellent singer –Lack of recordings due to record bans of the mid-40s
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 14 Bop and big bands - continued - Stan Kenton –West coast pianist and composer –Accepted the progressive label Great innovator in jazz education Never compromised art for the sake of commercialism
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 15 Cubop The addition of percussionists to progressive big bands in the late 40s gave variety and freshness to their sound Dizzy Gillespie was the first with the addition of Chano Pozo Musical collaborations also occurred –Gillespie with Mario Bauza –Kenton with Machito
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 16 Tito Puente Puente’s band combined more sophisticated harmonies with complex rhythms to further a Latin dance style called mambo Played originals, Latin hits, and jazz standards played in a Latin style Listen to “Donna Lee” CD 3, track 11
© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Jazz Tenth Edition Chapter 8 PowerPoint by Sharon Ann Toman, 2004.
THE SHIFT TO BE BOP More significant changes to Jazz occur during the Bop era than in an other time in Jazz history. The demise of Swing Big Bands brings.
“a most inadequate word” that “throws up its hands in clownish self- deprecation before all the complexity of sound and rhythm and self- assertive passion.
Jazz and the American Culture An Historical Overview and Analysis By Al Underachiever.
“The Bebop Era” MUH 271. Bebop “a most inadequate word” that “throws up its hands in clownish self- deprecation before all the complexity of sound and.
Thelonious Monk The most important jazz musicians are the one who are successful in creating their own original world of music with its own rules, logic,
Jazz developed from blues, which developed from African American spirituals, work songs, field hollars, etc. Born in the South.
Jazz 1920’s to 1960’s most popular American Made Swing Style Improvisation.
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© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Jazz Tenth Edition Chapter 11 PowerPoint by Sharon Ann Toman, 2004.
Black Culture. 1930’s-1940’s, black migrants moved to many Midwestern cities, but were kept out of white society. As in St. Louis, the black community.
By Marshall Jackson and Rob Beverly. Intro. Jazz is a difficult topic to define. Formed in the early 1800s by black slaves in America, the genre has evolved.
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American Music History Jazz, Big Band, Swing, & R’n’B.
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John Coltrane BLUE TRAIN ( ) Despite a relatively short career, only living to the age of forty, Coltrane remains one of the most influential.
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© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Jazz Tenth Edition Chapter 15 PowerPoint by Sharon Ann Toman, 2004.
History of Jazz America’s Music. What is Jazz? A musical conversation: partly planned and partly spontaneous A dialogue among the musicians who perform.
Miles Davis Quintet ‘Four’. About Davis Lived from 1926 to 1991 Regarded as the lead figure in American jazz through the 2 nd half of the 20 th century.
Jazz and Country. Jazz Lots of ex-slaves eventually settled in New Orleans, and played in the bars and clubs of the city. Usually they were in groups.
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Harlem Renaissance. 1920s and 30s 1920s and 30s Based primarily in Harlem Based primarily in Harlem A flowering of African American art, literature, and.
JOHN COLTRANE John Coltrane was born in Hamlet, North Carolina on September 23, 1926, and grew up in High Point, North Carolina attending William Penn.
© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Jazz Tenth Edition Chapter 4 PowerPoint by Sharon Ann Toman, 2004.
America’s Musical Gift to the World. Name three cities that Jazz music was popular in, during the early 1900s. Give the years in which jazz was popular.
Note Set #2: “Dixieland Jazz, Swing, and the Roles of Instruments”
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Chapter 9 Cool/ Third Stream. © 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 2 Cool contrasted with Bop Understated playing style –Relaxed tempos –Subtle instrumental.
Dixieland ~New Orleans Solo vs accompaniment Jazz instruments -saxophones -trumpets -trombones -clarinets -rhythm section *piano *drums *string bass ~walking.
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© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Jazz Tenth Edition Chapter 13 PowerPoint by Sharon Ann Toman, 2004.
Blues and Jazz Creating an American Artform. Delta Blues African-Americans in the 1800s sang about the pains of slavery, usually without any instruments.
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