Presentation on theme: "Evolution and Domestication of Canis lupus via Human Interaction By Gabe Miranda."— Presentation transcript:
Evolution and Domestication of Canis lupus via Human Interaction By Gabe Miranda
The Questions When and how did humans and dogs first begin to survive together in a mutualistic relationship? How and why did humans domesticate such a powerful carnivore? Are dog breeds really genetically different from one another?
Ancient History The Canidae family has its roots in North America Canids left North America via the isthmus of Panama and Beringia. THE WOLF EVENT!!! (1.8 MYA)
Canis lupus: Most successful large terrestrial carnivore? Directional Dispersal is a strategy used by young gray wolves in order to form their own packs, therefore becoming the alpha-male and female. Only the alpha-female and alpha- male in a pack are allowed to mate. Most packs consist of about 8 wolves (The mating pair, 4-6 pups and 1-2 yearlings) There have been packs observed that contain 42 wolves.
Camp Wolf The first instance of mutualism between man and wolf happened around 30,000 years ago.
Alpha-hypophamine addiction The love hormone, Oxytocin.
Suzanne C. Miller, et al An Examination of Changes in Oxytocin Levels in Men and Women Before and After Interaction with a Bonded Dog Tested oxytocin levels in men and women before and immediately after two different stimuli were presented. Reading a book for 25 minutes and petting their dog for 25 minutes.
Relevance? Humans are positively affected by dogs. Only women were affected in this particular. study. Provides plausible oxytocin puppy hypothesis. Good Feelings
Fast forward 15,000 years The first recorded example of humans and dogs co-habitating.
Genetically different breeds? Heidi G. Parker, et al Genetic Structure of the Purebred Domestic Dog Is the breed of a dog really genetically significant? 414 individual dogs. 85 distinct breeds. All 38 autosomes. 96 microsatellites.
Relevance? Breed of a dog is a real thing! Physically and genetically
Conclusion When and how did humans and dogs first begin to survive together in a mutualistic relationship? The exact date is still heavily debated and ranges from 100,000 years ago to 10,000 years ago. Most research I came across stated approx. 30,000 years ago. How and why did we domesticate such a powerful carnivore? A combination of oxytocin based emotions and the skill sets each species contributed to the mutualistic relationship. Are dog breeds really genetically different? Yes, one of the most diverse species on the planet.
Future Research Mapping the wolf genome. Ruby Ruby Ruby! (transgenesis)
References http://www.searchingwolf.com/wevolve.htm An Examination of Changes in Oxytocin Levels in Men and Women Before and After Interaction with a Bonded Dog. Suzanne C. Miller*, Cathy Kennedy*, Dale DeVoe*,Matthew Hickey*, Tracy Nelson* and Lori Kogan†* Department of Health and Exercise Science, Colorado State University,USA † Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, USA http://www.sciencemag.org/content/304/5674/1160.full#aff-1 Spady TC, Ostrander EA (January 2008). "Canine behavioral genetics: pointing out the phenotypes and herding up the genes". American Journal of Human Genetics 82 (1): 10–8. Chase, K., D. F. Carrier, F. R. Adler, E. A. Ostrander and K. G. Lark. 2005. Interaction between the X chromosome and an autosome regulates size sexual dimorphism in Portuguese Water Dogs. Genome Research 15:1820-1824. Parker, H. G., et al. 2004. Genetic structure of the purebred domestic dog. Science 304:1160-1164. Parker, H. G., and Ostrander, E. A. 2005. Canine genomics and genetics: Running with the pack. PLoS Genetics 1(5): e58. Sutter, N. B., et al. 2004. Extensive and breed-specific linkage disequilibrium in Canis familiaris. Genome Research 14:2388- 2396. Ruusila, V., and M. Pesonen. 2004. Interspecific cooperationin human (Homo sapiens) hunting: The benefits of a barkingdog (Canis familiaris). Annales Zoologici Fennici 41: 545–49. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.genome.gov/Images/press_photos/lowres/50- 72.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.genome.gov/11007323&usg=__dNXh_CSm8ot_7PIj9qvbXnEQCbs=&h=751&w=500&sz=256& hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=WLyl_q8derop5M:&tbnh=121&tbnw=81&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dboxer%2Bgenome%26um %3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en- US:official%26biw%3D1280%26bih%3D607%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=303&vpy=143&dur=224&hovh=1 87&hovw=124&tx=116&ty=136&ei=2ez8TPHtI8KqlAfq97mIBQ&oei=2ez8TPHtI8KqlAfq97mIBQ&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=26&v ed=1t:429,r:2,s:0