Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction 1863-1877 Three Elements 1.Political 2.Economic 3.Social Three Phases 1.Presidential Reconstruction Lincoln 1863-’65 2.Presidential Reconstruction."— Presentation transcript:
Reconstruction 1863-1877 Three Elements 1.Political 2.Economic 3.Social Three Phases 1.Presidential Reconstruction Lincoln 1863-’65 2.Presidential Reconstruction Johnson ‘65-’67 3.Congressional (Radical) Reconstruction ‘67-’77
Battle of Palarm, a skirmish of the Brooks-Baxter War in 1874. Pictured is the Baxter steamboat Hallie, which was captured by Brooks’s forces on the Arkansas River near the mouth of Palarm Creek. (Painting by James M. Fortenbury)
THE AGRICULTURAL WHEEL Come all ye sunburnt sons of toil, Arise from thine oppression; 'Tis true we till the stubborn soil, But a highway to progression, Which enemies cannot conceal, Is opened by this mighty Wheel. Come, Let us join our hearts and hands, And set this Wheel a-going; Perhaps 'twill roll to other lands, Its seeds of fortunate sowing, 'Till all the world its power may feel, And let's bless the Agriculture Wheel. Heed not the idle words of those Who would our march to freedom stay. They get their money, food and clothes From us who labor day by day; And if they could, I guess they'd steal The power and glory of the Wheel.
Black leaders from Helena around 1880. Seated center with hat is A. H. Miller, former slave turned businessman and state representative. Standing far right in the back row is J. T. White, founder of Second Baptist Church and veteran state legislator.
Mifflin Gibbs of Little Rock First black municipal judge in U.S. history
Black Arkansas legislators (B. F. Adair, George W. Bell and S. H. Dawson) featured in an 1891 issues of the Freeman, a national African-American publication.
African-American Population distribution in 1890
Some Notable Arkansas Women Carrie Nation leader in Prohibition Movement She would march into a bar and sing and pray, while smashing bar fixtures and bottles with a hatchet. Between 1900 and 1910, she was arrested some 30 times for "hatchetations," as she called them. Nation paid her jail fines from lecture-tour fees and sales of souvenir hatchets. Later in life, she lived in Eureka Springs.
Who's Who in the Central High School Crisis Minnijean Brown, Elizabeth Eckford, Ernest Green, Thelma Mothershed, Melba Pattillo, Gloria Ray, Terrance Roberts, Jefferson Thomas, Carlotta Walls: The nine black students who were able to attend Central High School. Daisy Bates: President of the Arkansas NAACP and coordinator of the plan to enroll nine black students at Central High. Virgil T. Blossom: Superintendent of Little Rock's public schools since 1953 and chief architect of the system's gradual desegregation plan. Dwight D. Eisenhower: president of the United States Orval E. Faubus: Governor of Arkansas, serving the second of his six two-year terms. Amis Guthridge: Lawyer of strongly segregationist views and a leader of the Capital Citizens Council of Little Rock. Brooks Hays: Democratic congressman, considered a racial moderate, who tried to mediate between Eisenhower and Faubus. Jim Johnson: Loser of the 1956 Democratic gubernatorial primary as an outspoken segregationist, to be elected in 1958 as an associate justice of the Arkansas Supreme Court. Thurgood Marshall: NAACP chief counsel.
J. William Fulbright 1939-1942 president of Univ. of Ark. 1943-1945, U.S. congressman 1945-1974, U.S. senator from Arkansas –1943 Fulbright Resolution, putting the House on record as favoring U.S. participation in U.N. –1946 Fulbright Program, establishing an educational exchange program for scholars between the U. S. and foreign countries. –1959-1974, chairman of Senate Foreign Relations Committee –Critic of Vietnam War
Arkansas’s Workforce Total workforce 1,330,000 32% Services (includes health care, teaching, repair) 24% wholesale or retail trade 22% manufacturing 7% percent in transportation or public utilities 5% percent in construction 4% percent in finance, insurance, or real estate 4% government 1% farming, forestry, or fishing Only 5% of the state’s workers are members of a union.
Religion in Arkansas Christian – 86% –Protestant – 78% Baptist – 39% Methodist – 9% Pentecostal – 6% Churches of Christ – 6% Assemblies of God – 3% Other Protestant – 15% –Roman Catholic – 7% –Other Christian – 1% Other Religions – <1% Non-Religious – 14%