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T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since 1954 www.tidelandsignal.com A Vision for Visual & Electronic Aids to Navigation (AtoN) for Africa ANTHONY.

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Presentation on theme: "T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since 1954 www.tidelandsignal.com A Vision for Visual & Electronic Aids to Navigation (AtoN) for Africa ANTHONY."— Presentation transcript:

1 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since A Vision for Visual & Electronic Aids to Navigation (AtoN) for Africa ANTHONY PARKER STEVE NELL Swakopmund, Namibia 2011

2 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Welcome to the World of “Innovation not Imitation”

3 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Aids to Marine Navigation  World leader in Aids to Navigation Over 1000 port and coastal AtoN systems delivered worldwide Over 50 years in business starting as supplier to offshore oil industry Members of IALA, IAPH, UKHMA, RTCM, IEC, CIRM, and NAM  Products include: Lighted Beacons and Floating Aids Radio Aids and AIS AtoN Audible Aids Power Sources Support Structures Remote Monitor & Control Services Installation Maintenance Consultancy

4 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Global Presence 125 Employees World Wide HQ Houston, USA Lafayette, USA Singapore Dabbrook, UK Vancouver, Canada Dubai, UAE Burgess Hill, UK Safe Sea Services, UAE Ottawa, Canada Shanghai 10 Global Offices

5 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Marine Data Solutions (MDSol) MDSol assists Maritime Authorities and Associated Industries to achieve their desired business objectives through the provision, maintenance and support of World Class Maritime Technology Solutions, such as Domain Awareness, Management Information Systems, Software Solutions, Docking Aid Systems, Aids to Navigation and Maritime Simulators

6 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Part of the Marine Community International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) International Association of Ports and Harbors (IAPH) International Harbour Masters' Association (IHMA) Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services (RTCM) COMITE INTERNATIONAL RADIO-MARITIME (CIRM) The International Association for Marine Electronics Companies British Marine Industries Federation (BMEA) Commission Electrotechnique Internationale (IEC) International Electrotechnical Commission

7 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Equipment Certifications

8 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Safe Sea Services Tideland offers installation and maintenance of its products and all other manufacturers’ products through its Safe Sea Services company. Services include; Surveys Installation of AtoN equipment Deployment of buoys and other floating aids Commissioning of fixed and floating aids Design and maintenance of mooring systems Risk Assessment Training Programs are flexible, provide cost effective AtoN maintenance and are tailored to the needs of the client.

9 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since A Vision for Visual & Electronic Aids to Navigation (AtoN) for Africa Swakopmund, Namibia 2011

10 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Background Since 1980s Increases in the safety of marine navigation. Advances in electronic technology carried on SOLAS ships. oe.g. GNSS, Radar, AIS, ECDIS Advances in visual AtoN technology oe.g. Solar power packs, LED, self-coloured polyethylene

11 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Introduction The presentation considers: The impact of technology on AtoN. oAbsolute/Minimum Effective Range oAtmospheric How these requirements can be used to specify AtoN. How developments in technology can enhance AtoN efficiency.

12 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Means of Navigation Open Sea Navigation Primary: GNSS Back-up: mariners will always want a means to fall-back on Navigation in Coastal/Confined Waters Primary: visual AtoN Back-up: GNSS & Radar Note: GNSS is vulnerable to extra-terrestrial and man-made interference.

13 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Key Words/Phrases II The presentation examines the key words/phrases: Identifies DTV (Day time visibility) and A/MER (Absolute/Minimum Effective Range) requirements as subjective judgements best made with local knowledge. Identifies Nominal Light Range as a means of using A/MER requirements to develop a specifiable light range. Highlights the irrelevance of specifying Focal Plane Heights when the required Geographic Range is less than 5 nm. Offers estimates of DTV and A/MER requirements for consideration in the following situations:

14 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Key Words/Phrases III Coastal Waters The Approaches to confined waters Fairway Buoys Channel Entrance Buoys Harbour Entrance Lateral Marks Within Ports and Harbours Channel Buoys Harbour Entrance Lateral Marks Points of Navigational significance Other AtoN requirements

15 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Factors Determining AtoN Size Local Environment oSea conditions, Depth, Current, Wind Speed What is the “must see range”? Daytime = DTV Night-time = A/MER

16 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since DTV – Day Time Visibility III DTV (nm)1.0 nm1.5 nm2.4 nm Cross-Sectional Area (m²) Buoy SizeDiameter (hull) Focal Plane Height (FPH)

17 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Geographical Light Range I A/MER of an AtoN = its Geographical Light Range Limited by: ocurvature of the earth oelevation of the light oobserver’s height of eye orefraction of the atmosphere

18 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Geographical Light Range II Height of Eye of Observer (m) AtoN Elevation/ FPH (m) Visible Range (nm)

19 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Geographical Light Range III Height of Eye of Observer (m) 2345 AtoN Elevation/ FPH (m) Visible Range (nm) Suitable lights can be visible at 5nm at heights of eye above 1-2m! Therefore, for “must see” ranges up to 5 nm – it is generally unnecessary to specify the FPH for a buoy.

20 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Nominal Light Range Definition Luminous light range when: Meteorological visibility = 10nm Transmissivity Factor, T =0.74 Note: Background Lighting (Factor) is not accounted for.

21 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since DTV & A/MER Requirements I Coastal Waters Primary: GNSS Secondary: Position fixing by ship-borne Radar plus 5nm light range to assist point to point navigation National Authorities may consider up to 16nm nominal light range oGeographical considerations oTraffic concentrations

22 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since DTV & A/MER Requirements II Approaches to Confined Waters with Fairway Buoy (FWB) Primary will be visual with nm light from Fairway Buoy Secondary: Parallel Index Lines, plus GNSS Waypoint, plus Racon trace, plus AIS AtoN Speed: time to detect FWB o6 kt= min. o12 kt= 7-10 min. o30 kt (HSC)= 4 min.

23 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since DTV & A/MER Requirements III Approaches to Confined Waters without Fairway Buoy (FWB) Primary: will be visual with either nm light from Channel Entrance Marker Buoys or Harbour Entrance Lateral Marks Secondary: Parallel Index Lines, plus GNSS Waypoint, plus Racon trace, plus AIS AtoN

24 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since DTV & A/MER Requirements IV Within Ports and Harbours ~ Channel Buoys By day it should be possible to see two lateral buoy pairs at the same time oFor example, with 1nm DTV buoys spaced at 750m intervals. By night it should be possible to see three pairs of buoy lights. oFor example, with 1.25nm A/MER lights on the same buoys.

25 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Background Lighting II Where exactly is the channel?

26 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Background Lighting III

27 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Background Lighting IV Background Lighting Ambient light levels reduce effective intensity of AtoN lights Plays a key role in conversion to/from Nominal Light Range Multiplication Factor oDefined in IALA Publication Specific locations will reduce effective intensity of individual AtoN when viewed from different locations/height of eye oIncreasing the intensity may not be the answer! oAlternative solutions are being developed oBack-ups and alternatives are required oEnhanced navigation/E-nav is recommended  A strong visual reference against extreme background lighting  Within IALA recommendations  3-5Nm Range  Symbolic Value  Easy to maintain  Already used in Barcelona and Valencia Ports

28 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Meeting AtoN Requirements I Technological advances Promote an overall reduction in costs. The use of DTV and A/MER as the primary consideration make the specification of buoy diameter and FPH irrelevant! Floating AtoN oPolyethylene Buoys, Solar Power Packs, LED Fixed AtoN oSolar Power Packs, LED

29 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Meeting AtoN Requirements II Floating AtoN: Polyethylene Buoys 20 year service life Low maintenance 30-50% less expensive through life, compared to steel Self-coloured/UV Stabilised/High visibility Resilient to glancing impact Maintenance /repair carried out in situ Oversized mooring kits allow longer maintenance intervals Lighter weight than steel: oLess expensive to transport oLess expensive to handle oLess expensive to deploy/recover oLess expensive to maintain

30 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Meeting AtoN Requirements III Light Sources: LED Increasing intensity with reduced power consumption o6nm for less than 4W or 10nm for less than 9W! Increased maintenance intervals Vertical Divergences up to 20° for Floating AtoN! Ranges up to 16nm as standard, including for Rotating Beacons Drop in retrofit and replacement

31 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Meeting AtoN Requirements IV Micro-processor Electronic Control and Monitoring >256 pre-programmed Flash Characters GPS Synchronisation Built In Test Equipment (BITE) Remote Monitoring oMesh Networks oSatellite Remote Monitoring (SRM) AIS AtoN oShip: AtoN e-Visibility oShore: Positional & Functionality checks Racon o-50 dBm sensitivity oProportional Scaling Radar Target Enhancer

32 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Conclusions Visual AtoN retain a primary role for navigation in confined waters Visual AtoN have a secondary role in open sea navigation and selected coastal navigation Advances in technology support a user-focused approach: Buoy diameter and Focal Plane Height are no longer relevant DTV and A/MER should be used to specify AtoN Proposals in this presentation are generalised and subjective. AtoN providers should consider them in their local context. Advances in technology offer considerable scope for improved AtoN capability, as well as, extending maintenance intervals (↓ cost!)

33 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since Recommendations It is recommended that AtoN providers consider a user-focused approach when specifying both the essential and optional extra AtoN equipment.

34 T IDELAND E NGINEERED Aids to navigation since A Vision for Visual & Electronic Aids to Navigation (AtoN) for Africa THANK YOU Swakopmund, Namibia 2011


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