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Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Promoting Literacy of Students with Visual and Multiple Disabilities Dr. Betsy Flener Regional Consultant Kentucky School.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Promoting Literacy of Students with Visual and Multiple Disabilities Dr. Betsy Flener Regional Consultant Kentucky School."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Promoting Literacy of Students with Visual and Multiple Disabilities Dr. Betsy Flener Regional Consultant Kentucky School for the Blind

2 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. What is Literacy? Early literacy Early literacy Academic literacy Academic literacy Functional literacy Functional literacy

3 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Early Literacy “The process of becoming literate begins at birth through repeated incidental and planned interactions with literacy media throughout the day prior to the onset of formal instruction in reading and writing” (Koenig & Farrenkopf, 1997; Marvin & Wright, 1997 as quoted in Parker & Pogrund, 2009).

4 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Early Literacy (Cont’d) According to Dunst et al. (2006), early literacy is comprised of the following Pre-literacy development Pre-literacy development Emergent literacy Emergent literacy Early literacy Early literacy

5 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Early Literacy (Cont’d) “Pre-literacy is defined as nonverbal communication skills and social skills acquired before language onset. They are the foundation for language acquisition and emergent literacy skills” (Dunst et al., 2006)

6 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Early Literacy (Cont’d) Sheena: The importance of embedding skills in routines (i e. mobility, tactual exploration, concepts, language, communication, etc.) Sheena: The importance of embedding skills in routines (i e. mobility, tactual exploration, concepts, language, communication, etc.)

7 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Sheena

8 Early Years (Cont’d) Emergent literacy includes "the verbal and nonverbal skills that are the foundation for the process of learning to read, write, and develop other literacy-related skills” (Dunst et al., 2006)

9 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Early Years (Cont’d) Early literacy is the "acquisition and mastery of the fundamentals of reading, writing and other literacy-related skills,” (Dunst et al., 2006)

10 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Academic Literacy Reading Reading Writing Writing Communicating in many symbolic forms Communicating in many symbolic forms Skills needed for various careers Skills needed for various careers

11 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Academic Literacy (Cont’d) Fluency is often an issue for academic students and those with mild additional disabilities Silent and oral reading Silent and oral reading Increasing fluency Increasing fluency  Repeated readings  Radio reading  Paired reading  Echo reading

12 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D.

13 Academic Literacy (Cont’d) Kurzweil 1000 Kurzweil 3000

14 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Functional literacy Like every other child, children with multiple disabilities deserve the opportunity to maximize their potential by learning to read or write or communicate through alternate means. Like every other child, children with multiple disabilities deserve the opportunity to maximize their potential by learning to read or write or communicate through alternate means.

15 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Research A study by Ek, Fellenius, and Jacobson (2003) examined reading acquisition in students with cerebral visual impairment. A study published in October 2009 by Parker & Pogrund reviewed research on the literacy of students with visual and additional disabilities.

16 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Calendar boxes Calendar boxes Use of routines with all goals embedded (i e. mobility, tactual awareness, communication, concept awareness, etc.) Use of routines with all goals embedded (i e. mobility, tactual awareness, communication, concept awareness, etc.) Light Box and Digital Light Box Artwork Activities Light Box and Digital Light Box Artwork Activities Students with more Severe Challenges

17 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Students with more Severe Challenges (cont’d) Switches Switches AAC Devices AAC Devices Computer with choice making, storyboards Computer with choice making, storyboards

18 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Sheena

19 Keyboarding Instruction  Adapted/modified keyboards  Intellitools  Modified methods

20 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Tactile Methods  Use of calendar system or other with objects  Tactile symbols and routines  Moon literacy  Functional braille approach (Wormsley, 2004)  Combination of braille with tactile symbols

21 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Tactile Methods (Cont’d) Moon Literacy Similar to alphabet Use of lines and curves, Good for advantageous blind Requires less keen sense of touch Appropriate for students with physical and learning issues

22 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D.

23 Tactile Methods (cont’d) Wormsley’s functional braille approach Based upon interests of the students Based upon interests of the students Tracking exercises are built into learning the word Tracking exercises are built into learning the word Can be extended Can be extended Good supporting research Good supporting research

24 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Shelby

25 Tactual Methods (cont’d) Issues in transitioning from objects/ symbols to more refined tactual tasks Textures Textures Tracking Tracking Use of both hands Use of both hands

26 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Logan

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28 Visual Approaches  Use of pictures such as Writing with symbols, Board Maker  Other picture schedules for students who have specific formats regarding color etc.  Adapted books  Visual charts, diagrams, graphs etc.

29 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Shania

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34 Picture Schedule: Could identify

35 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Identified only with changes

36 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Shania’s picture schedule

37 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Functional Literacy (Cont’d) Additional  Adapted computer software  Opportunities to record and listen to information via computer, tape recorder, or CD player (e.g. Sami Says)  Software designed for challenged learners (e.g. Classroom Suite and Balanced Literacy)

38 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. Functional Literacy (Cont’d) Additional (cont’d)  Picture Exchange System (PECS)  Switch devices  Augmentative Communication (e.g. Springlite)  Symbol Communicator for the Blind  Proloquo2Go

39 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D.

40 Michael

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44 References Bishop, G. & Brauner, D. (1988). Downloaded free computer games for blind children. free computer games for blind children. Available online at wwwx.cs.unc.edu Available online at wwwx.cs.unc.edu /~gh/wp/? s=sami+says /~gh/wp/? s=sami+says Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., Masiello, T., Roper, N. & Robyak, A. (2006). Frame- Roper, N. & Robyak, A. (2006). Frame- work for developing evidence-based work for developing evidence-based early literacy learning practices. CELL early literacy learning practices. CELL Papers 1(1), Retrieved from Papers 1(1), Retrieved from

45 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. References (Cont’d) Ek, U., Fellenius, K. & Jacobson, L. (2003). Reading acquisition, L. (2003). Reading acquisition, cognitive and visual development, cognitive and visual development, and self-esteem in four children and self-esteem in four children with cerebral visual impairment. with cerebral visual impairment. Journal of Visual Impairment Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 97, and Blindness, 97,

46 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. References (Cont’d) Parker, A. & Pogrund,R. (2009). A review of the research on A review of the research on the literacy of students with the literacy of students with visual impairments and visual impairments and additional disabilities. Journal additional disabilities. Journal of Visual Impairment and of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 103, Blindness, 103,

47 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. References (cont’d) Roman, C. (2007). Cortical Visual Impair- ment: An Approach to Assessment ment: An Approach to Assessment and Intervention. New York, NY: and Intervention. New York, NY: American Foundation for the Blind American Foundation for the Blind Press. Available at Press. Available at

48 Copyright 2010 Betsy Flener Ed. D. References (Cont’d) Wormsley, Diane (2004). Braille literacy: A functional approach. New York, NY: functional approach. New York, NY: American Foundation for the Blind American Foundation for the Blind Press. Press.


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