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Module 12A Theory on motivation and creativity Theory on Task Focus Estimated time: 30 minutes.

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1 Module 12A Theory on motivation and creativity Theory on Task Focus Estimated time: 30 minutes

2 Write reflection notes all day Empty your mind of thoughts all the day One reflection for each paper Anderson, H. H. (1959). Creativity in perspective. In H. H. Anderson (Eds.), Creativity and its cultivation, New York, Harper

3 Motivation

4 Avoid external evaluation (1/6) External evaluation is power OVER the innovator... Power over another is the ultimate achievement of conformity by the individual to external standards Anderson, H. H. (1959). Creativity in perspective. In H. H. Anderson (Eds.), Creativity and its cultivation, New York, Harper

5 Avoid external evaluation (2/6) Extrinsic motives can cause a person to divide his/her attention between extrinsic goals and the task at hand Amabile, T. M. (1983). The social psychology of creativity. New York, Springer-Verlag

6 Avoid external evaluation (3/6) Contracting for a reward leads to lower levels of creativity Hennesey, B. A. (1989). The effect of extrinsic constraints on children’s creativity while using a computer. Creativity Research Journal, 2, Kruglanski, A. W., Friedman, I., & Zeevi, G. (1971). The effects of intrinsic incentives on some qualitative aspects of performance. Journal of Personality, 39, McGraw, K. O, & McCullers, J. C. (1979). Evidence of a detrimental effect of extrinsic incentives on breaking a mental set. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 15,

7 Avoid external evaluation (4/6) Reward and recognition that confirm competence (creative performance) are synergistic to intrinsic factors - and therefore increase creativity No reward/recognition for output Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, Plenum Eisenberger, R., & Rhoades, L. (2001). Incremental effects of reward on creativity, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81,

8 Avoid external evaluation (5/6) Positive evaluation prior to a performance has negative effects on creativity Bartis, S., Szymanski, K., & Harkins, S. G. (1988). Evaluation and performance: A two-edged knife. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 14, Berglas, S., Amabile, T. M., & Handel, M. (1981). Effects of evaluation on children’s artistic creativity. Unpublished manuscript, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA Amabile, T. M., Goldfarb, P., & Brackfield, S. (1990). Social influences on creativity: Evaluation, coaction, and surveillance. Creativity Research Journal, 3, 6-21

9 Avoid external evaluation (6/6) Gain reward (winning) diminishes creativity Non-gain (avoid losing) increases creativity Friedman, R. S. (2009). Reinvestigating the effects of promised reward on creativity, Creativity Research Journal, 21,

10 Avoid person focus Factors that are work/task focused rather than person-focused are positively related to creativity Runco, M. A., & Chand, I. (1995). Cognition and creativity. Educational Psychology Review, 7, Sternberg, R. J. and Lubart, T. I. (1996). Investing in creativity, American Psychologist, 51,

11 Create task focus Creative insights arise when people are focused on a particular problem, thus not focused on themselves or any other factor around Kaplan, C. A. & Simon, H. A. (1990). In search for insight. Cognitive Psychology, 22, Bowers, K. S., Regehr, G., Balthazard, C., & Parker, K. (1990). Intuition in the context of discovery. Cognitive Psychology, 22,

12 Sleep, thirst, food... Self-actualized creativity is the spontaneous expression of the person whose basic needs have been satisfied Maslow, A. H. (1968). Toward a psychology of being (2nd ed.). Princeton, NJ, Van Nostrand Reinhold

13 Keep it simple and short A highly intrinsically motivated state is achieved when people are engaged in an activity where the challenges match their level of skills Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Csikszentmihalyi, I. S. (Eds.). (1988). Optimal experience: Psychological studies of flow in consciousness. Cambridge University Press

14 Tools for motivation

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16 3D CASE: What happens next with dangerous alien 1. Find together two and two with someone having the same favorite cartoon character as yourself 2. You now stand in the middle of huge and dark forest. You want to get out of the forest but don’t know the way. On your way out you experience strange things 3. The one starts by saying “See, here is a path. Lets follow that” and then asks the partner “What happens next?” 4. You start walking 5. Take turns to develop a short part of the story of what happens on the way out of the forest. Every time one of you have added a part to the story he/she hands the story over by asking “what happens next” 6. Before every sentence you want to say you should take a very deep breath, open your eyes widely and lean a little backwards (like you have seen an dangerous alien). Practice this 3-4 times before they start the exercise 7. Demonstrate 8. Whoever has the warmest clothes on starts

17 Please sit down

18 Task focus No personal introduction - but replaced by other kinds of introduction Byrge, C. (2010). Conceptualisation of creativity practices through action research: The case of the creative platform at aalborg university, PhD thesis, Aalborg University

19 Task focus Never focus on the participants... - background - education - work experience - personal preferences etc. Byrge, C. (2010). Conceptualisation of creativity practices through action research: The case of the creative platform at aalborg university, PhD thesis, Aalborg University

20 Task focus Never focus on the participants... NEVER SAY: “You are an economist, so...” NEVER SAY: “You are a sailor, so...” NEVER SAY: “You have tried this before, so...” Byrge, C. (2010). Conceptualisation of creativity practices through action research: The case of the creative platform at aalborg university, PhD thesis, Aalborg University

21 Task focus Make the task at hand fill as much as possible - Put it on the wall - Write it down in front of you (leave it on the table) Byrge, C. (2010). Conceptualisation of creativity practices through action research: The case of the creative platform at aalborg university, PhD thesis, Aalborg University

22 Task focus Make the task at hand fill as much as possible - Remove any artifact that reminds of previous tasks - Only bring in artifacts WHEN they are needed Byrge, C. (2010). Conceptualisation of creativity practices through action research: The case of the creative platform at aalborg university, PhD thesis, Aalborg University


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