2 Chapter Overview:Examines the conflict between Native Americans and Anglo ranchers / farmers in West Texas
3 Chapter SectionsSection 1: Describes how Native Americans controlled West Texas after the Civil War.Section 2: Explains how Native American culture was changed by the extermination of the buffalo and battles with U.S. Army / Texas Rangers.Section 3: Describes the last Native American battles at the Rio Grande.
4 Section 1: West Texas After the Civil War Native Americans Control the West:By 1850, most Native Americans removed from Eastern half of TexasHowever, settlers in West Texas lived under constant fear of raids
5 To stop the raids, federal troops stationed in West TX; 1. posts at Fredericksburg, Albany, San Angelo,Fort Stockton, Fort Davis, El PasoFor awhile, the army was unable to stop the raids – WHY?
8 Army Disadvantages Not enough soldiers and untrained Little/no experience fighting Native AmericansForts built too far apart/too far west to immediatelyprotect settlers4. Shortages of food/suppliesforced the cancellation ofmany army attackcampaigns
9 Native American Advantages Knew the lands of West Texas very wellSkilled fightersa) in the time it took to load a rifle or pistol (1 min), a skilled warrior could ride 200 yds and shoot 20 arrowsPlus, by 1870s, mostNative Americanscarried rifles, too
10 Treaty of Medicine Lodge Creek 1867 – federal agents met with tribal chiefs in (present-day) Kansas and signed treatyTerms of the treaty:Native Americans moved to reservations in Indian Territory (present-day Okla)U.S. govt provide food/suppliesU.S. army not allowed on the reservationsNative Americans would STOP the raids on settlers.
11 Treaty (cont’d)Generally believed that kind, fair treatment would stop Native Americans from raidingMany Quakers served as Indian Agents1. Quakers did not believe in violence2. Lawrie Tatum – Quaker Indian Agentwho worked to educate Native Americansin agriculture so they could earn living inwhite man’s world
12 Medicine Lodge Treaty Fails Many Native Americans refused to sign treaty – nearly one-half of Comanches, KiowasClaimed:1. government broke promises made tothem;2. cheated and mistreated them
13 Satanta – Kiowa ChiefMost famous Kiowa chief – excellent speaker (Orator of the Plains)Wanted to preserve Kiowa way of lifeInsisted that West TX belonged to Kiowas and ComanchesBelieved his people could not survive very long on reservations
14 Other Chiefs Agree:Lone WolfLone Wolf – Kiowa chief who called for war against army/settlers (to avenge son’s death in army battle)Ten Bears – Comanche chief who argued that people must be allowed to roam freely over TX plainsQuanah Parker – Comanche chief and son of Nocona and white woman, Cynthia Ann Parker; spent 10 years attacking/trying to run settlers out of TXQuanah ParkerTen Bears
15 Some Tribes LeftKicking Bird and Striking Eagle – Kiowa chiefs who argued against war with army and advised people to accept the ways of the white manHorseback – Comanche chief who moved his people to reservations.Warfare between Native Americans and army troops / settlers increased and became much more serious!
16 A Kiowa drawing of a battle in West TX – possibly Red River campaign