Chapter Overview: Examines the conflict between Native Americans and Anglo ranchers / farmers in West Texas
Chapter Sections Section 1: Describes how Native Americans controlled West Texas after the Civil War. Section 2: Explains how Native American culture was changed by the extermination of the buffalo and battles with U.S. Army / Texas Rangers. Section 3: Describes the last Native American battles at the Rio Grande.
Section 1: West Texas After the Civil War Native Americans Control the West: By 1850, most Native Americans removed from Eastern half of Texas However, settlers in West Texas lived under constant fear of raids
To stop the raids, federal troops stationed in West TX; 1. posts at Fredericksburg, Albany, San Angelo, Fort Stockton, Fort Davis, El Paso For awhile, the army was unable to stop the raids – WHY?
Army Disadvantages 1.Not enough soldiers and untrained 2.Little/no experience fighting Native Americans 3.Forts built too far apart/ too far west to immediately protect settlers 4. Shortages of food/supplies forced the cancellation of many army attack campaigns
Native American Advantages 1.Knew the lands of West Texas very well 2.Skilled fighters a) in the time it took to load a rifle or pistol (1 min), a skilled warrior could ride 200 yds and shoot 20 arrows 3.Plus, by 1870s, most Native Americans carried rifles, too
Treaty of Medicine Lodge Creek 1867 – federal agents met with tribal chiefs in (present-day) Kansas and signed treaty Terms of the treaty: 1.Native Americans moved to reservations in Indian Territory (present-day Okla) 2.U.S. govt provide food/supplies 3.U.S. army not allowed on the reservations 4.Native Americans would STOP the raids on settlers.
Treaty (cont’d) Generally believed that kind, fair treatment would stop Native Americans from raiding Many Quakers served as Indian Agents 1. Quakers did not believe in violence 2. Lawrie Tatum – Quaker Indian Agent who worked to educate Native Americans in agriculture so they could earn living in white man’s world
Medicine Lodge Treaty Fails Many Native Americans refused to sign treaty – nearly one-half of Comanches, Kiowas Claimed: 1. government broke promises made to them; 2. cheated and mistreated them
Satanta – Kiowa Chief Most famous Kiowa chief – excellent speaker (Orator of the Plains) Wanted to preserve Kiowa way of life Insisted that West TX belonged to Kiowas and Comanches Believed his people could not survive very long on reservations
Other Chiefs Agree: Lone Wolf – Kiowa chief who called for war against army/settlers (to avenge son’s death in army battle) Ten Bears – Comanche chief who argued that people must be allowed to roam freely over TX plains Quanah Parker – Comanche chief and son of Nocona and white woman, Cynthia Ann Parker; spent 10 years attacking/trying to run settlers out of TX Lone Wolf Ten Bears Quanah Parker
Some Tribes Left Kicking Bird and Striking Eagle – Kiowa chiefs who argued against war with army and advised people to accept the ways of the white man Horseback – Comanche chief who moved his people to reservations. Warfare between Native Americans and army troops / settlers increased and became much more serious!
A Kiowa drawing of a battle in West TX – possibly Red River campaign